THE IMPACT OF WORLD WAR 1: CONTEXT FOR THE VERSAILLES TREATY

I. Course Themes-- Origins, Conduct & Consequences of WW2 in Aftermath of WW1
        A. Declining British/French response to aggressive Germany--evaluate policy from Versailles to Appeasement

        B. Did Versailles Treaty Cause WW2? What caused World War Two? 
        C. Revolution: How did ideology affect origins & conduct of war?
        D. How did USSR shape & help win WW2?  How did Cold War begin?
        E. Why did Allies win/Axis lose & what was the role of the 2nd Front?
        F. Is War Possible Again? Why WW1? When & why did WW2 start? Was it inevitable?

II. Total War Trauma: WAR IS NOT POSSIBLE: NEVER AGAIN! No Short War, No Long War
        A. Demographic, Spiritual, Philosophical, Psychological Destruction
        B. Social/Cultural/Political/Economic/Financial Instability--New War Risks Revolt or Socialism
        C. Strategic/Ideological/Moral Dilemmas Make War Unthinkable: If War...
                1. Win Short War Quickly/Offensive Thrust? NO: Trench Warfare Advantage to Defensive!
                2. Fight Long Total War? (Weaken Enemy Morale thru Blockade?): NO!
                3. Alliance with USSR Would Risk Socialism: 2nd Front Gone
                        a. Commies Published Treaties, Repudiated Debts, Quit, Betrayed
                        b. Suspect USSR: Delay Inevitable War w/Capitalism, Await Intra-Capitalist War
                        c. So Where Will France Find Security? USA? British?
                        d. British & French Disagree re Continental Commitment vs. Germany
                        e. USA: Unilateralism ("Isolationism") Neutrality & Johnson Acts Amid Depression
        D. Drawing Lessons from Studying History: WW1, WW2 & Bosnia: NEVER AGAIN WAR
                1. Learn & Prevent War! What Causes Wars? STOP IT! Pacifism/Appeasement--Prevention or Cause?
                2. Assume All Learn Same Lessons? Could Anyone Consider War Fruitful?
                3. Collective Security Amplifies All Small Conflicts: War for Peace?
III. Realpolitik and the Importance of Power, Leadership & Ideas--Does "Realism" Cause War?
        A. Ingredients of Power: Economic/Industrial/Technology/Geography/Demography
        B. Leadership Civilian, Domestic, Diplomatic (UN v Axis), & Military (Strategic/Tactical/Logistical)
        C. IDEOLOGY: Liberal Capitalist/Democracies v Nazi/Fascist LEADER v Communism
                 1. PreWW1 FREE Move of Goods, Money, & Migrants & Stable Central Currency
                 2.
Democracy Beats Monarchy 1919, Communism 1989, Terrorism...! New Threats '30s/'00s?
                 3. Interwar Ideological Battle & Depression Shape Use of Power: WAR

IV.  Why New War? WHEN? Was Europe So Weakened That 30 Years War Ensues?
        A. Versailles Treaty Doesn't Solve, But Worsens Situation, Reparations Stupid
                1. Too Harsh: German Denied Input, Lost Land, Guilty
                2. Inherently UNSTABLE, Balance of Power Gone; Minorities Weaken Eastern Europe
                3. Continuity of German Aims, 1914-41: Revisionist War: Hitler Normal? Opportunist? Blueprint?
         B. Or Europe Recovers in 1920s & Plunges Again Due to Depression & Hitler
                1. German Revisionist War Likely vs. Status Quo Powers: Nazi Holocaust Certain?
                2. Locarno Political/Economic (Borders/Reparations) Recovery: Significance?
                3. Instability Potentially Solvable, But Depression Leads to Hitler!
                4. Important LATE Western Shift from Acquiescence to Resolve
V. Origins of WARS & of WW1: Immediate Causes & General Origins: STOP THEM! Do Solutions Solve?
        1) Nation-States Exist & Practice Realpolitik vs.  Int'l Law & League of Nations

        2) Kings Make Alliances Secretly vs. Open Diplomacy & Democracy
        3) German Q: Challenge SQ/League of Nations vs. Victors Ally to Carve/Restrain Germany
        4) Capitalist Econ Rivals/Empire vs. Open Door to Raw Materials/Markets/Free Seas
        5) Arms Races & Cult of Offensive vs. Arms Control & Disarmament
        6) Multinational Empire: Autocrats Oppress Minorities vs. Self- Determination & Democracy For All Whites

        Alternative For ALL: Embrace Communism!

 

  THE VERSAILLES TREATY: CONTEXT & CLAUSES

I. Did Versailles Treaty Cause WW2: 20 Year Truce? Links to Excellent Site 1 and 2--with guide to where key points are found
II. Wilson's Eternal Peacemaking Program: 14 Points
        A. 1918 Elections & Washington's Farewell: Woodrow Wilson's Domestic Position?
        B. Secular Messianic USA & USSR Pariah, Thanks to Debts, Betrayal, Communist Triumph

        C. Open world: remove antagonism's roots thru arms cuts; no secret diplomacy/allies;  =, open access to markets/RM, free navigation (2,4,5)
        D. Self-determination: free Alsace-Lorraine/Belgium; tyranny over Poles, Aus minorities: (Hapsburg/Romanov successor states critical)  (6)
        E. League of Nations: enforcement (& amendment?) mechanism (1-2)
        F. Germans Accept as Basis for Armistice: Feel Diktat Violates (3?)
III. How Restore Order & Prevent Future War? Realism vs. Moralism
        A. Reestablish Pre-War Balance of Power?
Discredited Realpolitik (1?)
                 1. Russian Outcasts & German Apprentices: Restrain Both?
                 2. Prevent Communist Spread: Intervene against USSR (Cold War?); Nice to Germans?
        B. Make Peace Quickly to Restore Stability: Errors Inevitable
        C. Neither Victor's Carthaginian Peace Nor One of Accommodation
        D. Balance Destroyed: German Power Remains: USA CRUCIAL!?
        E. Restrain Germany: HOW? Punish? Integrate??? Can't Dismember (3)
                 1. Arms Cuts Unequal, (Temporarily) Enforced, League of Nations Moral Force
                 2.
French Goals: Security Guarantee vs. Germany, $$ Aid to Rebuild
                 3. British Hope: Pension Cash, Navy Eliminated, Germany as Trading Partner; No Territorial Losses
IV. Peacemaking: Compromises of Secret Treaties & 14 Points
        A. Italy Unsuccessfully Demands Albania/Fiume/Dalmatia: Resentment Leads to Mussolini
        B. Open Diplomacy & Sovereign Equality vs. Big 3 & Diktat (2)
        C. Mandates are Fig Leaf for Colonial Expansion; Blockades Retained  (3)
        D. Racist Application of Self-Determination Offends Japan (Racial Equality Clause Fails)  (6)
        E. Selective Self-Determination: Germany Mostly Intact & Resentful (French Secure?) (3/6)
                1. Demography & Geography: French Need Aid! Conditional/Worthless US-UK Pledge
                2.
Rhineland: Occupied 15 Yrs, Demilitarized "Forever"
                3. German Military Unilaterally Shrunk: Numerically, Air, Subs, German General Staff  (5)
                4. No US $ Aid: Repay Debts: German Reparations Essential
        F. Germans Complain: Poles/Anschluss/Sudetens: "SubHumanOppressors" (6)
                1. Excluded from Conference, Diktat, Lose Territory/Colonies
(Link to Bitter German Response, 1919)
                2. But German Power Largely Intact: Prestige Damaged
                3. Punished without Recognizing Defeat: Any Losses Unjust, See Brest-Litovsk Re Complaints  (
More Positive View)
V. USA Abdication: Treaty Defeated--Unilateralism Reasserted
        A. Senate Defense of Prerogatives: Advice & consent on treaties
        B. Delegation:  No Republicans or Senators; Sick Wilson Refuses to Compromise
        C. Congress' privilege to declare war? Undermined by Article X of Covenant: preserve & respect political 
             independence & territorial integrity of all vs. external aggression
        D. Ideals Compromised at Paris & Excessive Idealism: Link to Assessments of Wilson's Legacy
VI.   Security? Victors' Coalition Falters: Economic/Military/Financial Power without USA?
        A. German Resentment Certain, But is Hitler Necessary? Compare with France post-1815?
        B. Washington Conference Naval Cuts (US, British & Japan) & Construction Holiday on Capital Ships
        C. "Militarist France" & Japanese Resentment w/o Effective Restraint: Status Quo Possible?
        D. British/French DIVIDE, US Withdraws, USSR Evicted, Italy Goes Fascist
               
1. British Seek Continental French/German Equilibrium & Balance of Power, Not French Hegemon
                2. French Strict vs. British Lenient Application of Treaty
                3.
Treaty Not Fully Enforced: Loses Credibility with Victors! Did Failure to Enforce Cause World War 2? Link to One Historian's Assessment of Its Legacy

        E. Wilson's & Keynes' "Economic Consequences" & Political Consequences: Treaty Perceived as Unfair

 

20'S ECONOMIC & SECURITY ILLUSIONS: THE RUHR CRISIS & LOCARNO

I. War’s Economic Aftermath: Context of Political Insecurity: Trade/Investment/Migration Skewed
        A. Extra Non-European Agricultural/Industrial Capacity; West Europe's Latin American  Export Market Goes to US
        B.  Political Self-Determination's Economic Expression: Eastern European Autarky/Tariffs
        C. Dead/Flu/Mutilé: Demography; US Insists War Debts Repaid, Yet Increases Tariff & CLOSES DOOR to EEurope

II.  Reparations: French Exasperated with German Recalcitrance & A-Am Alliance Bailout
        A. Genoa Failure '22: British/French Split; German-Soviet Concord @ Rapallo & Soviet NEP
        B. Brits Swing Toward Keynes re Trade: German Market for British Goods
        C. France: Enforce Treaty             Germany: Dismantle Treaty          Britain: Revise Treaty
        D. German Reparations to France Cut German Ability to Pay for British Imports; 

        E. German Exports To Pay France Compete w/British Exports
        F. Deadlock:  Ruhr Occupied, Jan ’23      Poincaré: ENFORCE Versailles Treaty,  Since Germany Lost War
        G. Franco/Belgian Army Seek Reparations in Kind; German Passive Resistance/Printing Causes Inflation
                1. Weimar Weak: Erzberger Killed 1921, Rathenau 1922; Rightist Putsch in Bavaria (Link to Account)
                2. Stresemann Fulfills Versailles Treaty: G Wins By Losing, Fr Loses  (Unilateralism Absurd: Munich)
        H. US Multilateral Solution: Loans Stabilize Temporarily
                1. French Resent US Insistence on Loan Repayment: Is Gold More Precious than Blood?
                2. Financial Aid (From New York, Rather than Washington): Plan & Guarantee Reparations Payments
                        a. Dawes Plan (1924): Evacuate Ruhr, Short Term US Loans: Locarno Link
                        b. Young Plan (1929): Reps Cut Again, Stretched Long Term to 1988
                 3. Stable Economic Recovery/Prosperity, '24-29: Illusive, Superficial, Dependent on US $$

III. Security: Weak/Defensive France Can't Disarm, Looks East To Weak Successor States to Create Balance of Power?
         A. French Need Strong Germany to Pay Reparations & vs Communism; Needs Weak Germany to Ensure Security
         B. NO USSR: Status Quo (SQ) Powers Ally to Oppose Any Revisions: CORDON SANITAIRE
         C. France: Belg '20, Poles '21, Czechs '24,  Rumania '26, Yugo '27  Little Entente: Czech-Yugo-Rum '21 vs Hungary
         D. Cordon vs. USSR/Germans, Yet Foci Vary/Minorities; Fragile SQ Democracy/Geographically Weak vs. Revisionists
         E. League Enforce '23?: League Wd Designate Aggressor/Signatories Respond on Own Continent (Br Oppose All?)
         F. Geneva Protocol vs Aggressor: If Refuse Arbitrate, All Reply: But Would US Resist If Sanctions Interrupt Trade?
         G. Failed French/British Co-Operation: Enables German Initiative: Concede Guarantee of French Frontier; East?  

IV.  "Spirit of Locarno," 1925: Optimistic New Beginning without Followup (Defines Next Battlefield)
         A. Real End to WW1: A "Peace Treaty" Germans Accept Willingly w/o Diktat
         B. G Want to Keep Rearming (Rapallo) & Get Cologne Evacuated, Yet Weak IMCC Reports Flagrant Violations
         C. Germans Guarantee Frontier: Rhineland Pact: Br/Fr/Germany/Belgium/Italy Renounce War & Guarantee Frontier
                  1. Settle Differences by Arbitration (Also in East)
                  2. Germany Joins League w/o Military Obligation (Berlin Treaty '26 Reassures USSR)
                  3. French Allowed Self-Defense Reply ONLY if Germans Breach the Demilitarization of Rhineland
                  4. Yet How Save France's Polish & Czech Allies Except By Crossing German Border? Maginot Mentality
         D.
No Penalty For Reparations Default/Rearmament: Unenforceable! Yet "Militarist France" Blamed!
         E. G-Polish & G-Czech Arbitration Conventions ONLY: No German Pledge on Eastern Borders
         F. No Joint British-French Staff Planning Possible: Britain Avoids Real Commitment

V. Stresemann's Motives?: Is there Continuity in German Aims, Wilhelm II to Stresemann to Hitler?
         A. Individuals, Contingency (1929 Death) & Inevitability: Was Stresemann a Good European?
         B. NonUnilateral Nationalist, Sought Peaceful, Moderate Revision of Polish Border (& US Cash)
         C. Entertained Mini-War As Last Resort vs Poles: Was This Possible?
         D. So: Would Any German Challenge to Versailles Result in European War? World War?
         E. Turner/Parker Say No: What Does This Say About 30 Yrs War Thesis?
         F. So Do Dawes/Locarno Ensure Stability or Do they Ensure  the Nazis?  Disarmament Possible?

VI.  More Evidence of "Spirit of Locarno"? Or Is Briand A Realist Who Will Accept LCD to get British Aid?
         A. Kellogg-Briand Pact '28; Briand's EuroUnion Idea; Maginot Line; Cordon Sanitaire to Idealism?
         B. Link to Brief, Favorable Biography of Andre Maginot
         C. Maginot Impact On Pole/Czech Very Different From On US/UK: Passivity or NonMilitarism?
VII. Did Missed Opportunities/Failure To Establish Secure Political/Economic Base Cause World War 2?
 
 

 

  THE GREAT DEPRESSION: CAUSES, CONSEQUENCES & CONTEXT FOR IDEOLOGICAL DIVISIONS

 

  I.  External/Internal Economic Causes & Consequences of Depression: Link to Excellent On-line Summary & Another
 
      A. Destructive Dependence on Shaky US Leadership: '29 Crash/Hi Tariffs/Reparations Loans End: Debts Delinquent: Link to Smoot-Hawley  
        B. Collapse of Business, Personal Confidence, Credit, & Imports Affects Europe
        C. Euro/Global Agricultural Glut Leads to Falling Prices, Trade, Credit, and Failing Banks?
                1. From Export Agriculture to Subsistence Agriculture: Govt & Mercantile Revenue Fall
                2. Banks/People/States Can't Pay (International) $$ Obligation
                3. Prevent Trade Deficits: Exchange Controls, Tariffs Rise
                4. Imports Fall 2/3: Laissez Faire Interdependence Replaced By Statism
        D. From Confidence & Cooperation to Cutthroat Competition

II.  Had Hoped Techno Rescue From Instability; Rather, Sci/Tech Aggravate War's Impact
        A. AirPower, Car, Tank, Radio, Movies, Antibiotics; Genetics, Tobacco/Cancer & Nazi Eugenics
        B. Science No Liberator: Einstein, Relativity/ism, A-Bomb: Govt Control vs. Free Exchange of Ideas


III. Political Consequences of Great Depression As US & Germany Hit Hardest: Illusions Turn to Pessimism
        A. Trade Reprisals Push Move to Self-Sufficiency: Anti-Status Quo (In Extremity, Lebensraum)
        B. Hitler in Germany, Internal Division in Potential Opponents
        C. USA Vs. Europe Bitterness: Debt Delinquency : From Moratorium to Johnson Act '
        D. Ideological Divisions: Nat'lism/Communism/Fascism Gain  vs.   Liberal-Capitalist Int'lism
                 1.
WEuropean/US Demos Turn Inward, Confidence Shaken & Defense $$ DOWN: Crazy
                2. Willpower to Cooperate & Resist Lacking; Balance Budget to Restore Confidence Vs Aid to Poor?
                3. Baffling Mindsets: Führer Idea, Struggle Glorified; Dictatorships in E & C Europe--See Shift
                4. Fascist Irrational Nationalism, Middle-Class Base, Top-Down Control
        E. Did Great Depression Cause World War 2?

 

IV. Ideological Battlegrounds: France, Austria, German, Italy, Britain, Spain, USSR
        A. Domestic Context for Foreign Policy: Borders Blurred By Shared Hate or Redirect Hatred Out
        B. Fear: Compromise Means Enemy Infiltration Amid Implicit/Explicit Extremist Co-op vs. Center
        C. Violence as Solution to Political Problems: Why?
        D. So What is the Importance of Ideology in Upcoming War?

V.  France: Delayed & Debilitating Effects: Neither Surrender VT Nor Defend It: Will Disintegrate
        A. Less Industrial/Less Dependent on Trade; Delay Devaluation: Stagnation, Postpones Recovery
        B. Imperial Preference Curbs Econ Influence on EEur; Lingering Econ Collapse-- Social Disharmony
        C. Budget: Votes/Confidence: 11 Govts 1932-35, 24 1930-40    LEADERS? Avenue for Extremists
        D. Stavisky Affair: Right v Left Extremes Empowered By Police/Judiciary Corrupt, Inept Chamber
                 1. Long-Held Hates Blossom:  Patriotism=Racism?: Dreyfus Redux: Feb 34 Riots
                 2. Right Had Often Exploited Corruption      Protection/Suicides/Delayed Medical Care, Say Cynics
                 3. Dalimier Letters Threaten Chautemps Govt, Blames Others, Shifts Responsibility, Quits
                 4. Silenced Suspect Leads to Left/Rightist Riots, Premiers Chautemps, Daladier Quit 
        E. Class/Regional Divides Influenced By Econ Distress: Leftist Riot Draws Heavier Police Fire
                 1. Rival Paramilitaries: Right to Bear Arms...Army/Provincial Loyalty? Who're true Fr?
                 2. Similar Divisions Apparent in Death of Red Vienna, Austria, Leads to Anschluss
                 3. Link to Official Austrian Government Summary of "Red Vienna"
                 4.
Popular Front Wins (40Hr Week): Hitler, Not Blum!:  Fear Spanish Civil War, Reds, Air Attack
        F. France Weak as Germany Recovers: '36 Devaluation Useless: Leftist Euphoria Scares Market
        G. Obvious Dependence on Anglo-Americans: No Independent Policy, Maginot Undermines EEur Allies
        H. Can't Act Resolutely versus Foreign Dangers & Can't Rearm Until Forced

 

VI.  League?: '31 Fails Test: Japan's Aggression in "Manchukuo" Responds to Chinese Nat'list Assertion
        A. Demography, Geography, Politics, Economics & Japan's Expansion
        B. Pinpricks: Stimson Doctrine, Lytton Commission (Sterling Collapses)


VII.  1935-6 Italy's Imperial Glory: League Impotent, TERROR WAR, Axis
        A. Sawdust Caesar's Revenge for Adowa: Precedent For Bombings
        B. France/Britain: Italy Emulates Colonial Example... League Credibility? versus  Security Priorities?
                1. Peace Indivisible?: Can/Will League or Powers Identify/Respond to Aggression? With War?
                2. Can League Act On Issue That Exists Only Because League Does? Public Expects Referral to League
                3. Musso Attacks: British & French Disorganized/Divided/Unwilling to Act/Unable to Ignore
                4. Mussolini Thought British & French Consented @ Stresa: Colonial Hypocrites!
                5. Sanctions: Weak/Inconsistent/Antagonize, US Uses Oil Loophole; Denies Arms to Both
                6. Bungled, Weak: Hoare-Laval Topples French Govt, so None @Rhine Occupation
                7. League Fails 2nd Test: Ignored @ Munich & Otherwise
        C. Germany: Armed Ethiopia to Ensure Resistance & Divide Stresa
                1. Mussolini Driven To Depend On Hitler (Also By Aid to Spain), Stresa Gone, League Frail
                2.
West Exaggerates Italian Power: Brits Have 3 Enemies
        D. Italy Underdeveloped: Fascism No Better, Too Ambitious!
                1. League's Ethiopian Sanctions/Credit Do Slowly Hurt Economic Recovery
                2. Italian Dependence on British Coal Replaced By German; Isolation=Subordination

VIII. Germany: Short term US Loans Gone; Unemployment Similar to USA: 11% '20s to 30% '32  Unwise Dissolution: 1930
        A. Stresemann/Young Plan Forgotten: Allies Quit Rhine in 1930: So What!  Nazis Multiply 8x in Elections
        B. Nazi: Alienated, Violent, Hopeless Youth: Before Full Depression: Extremists 40% '30, 50%+'32
        C. Brüning/Papen/Schleicher Rule by Decree '30-32: Nazi '32 Vote Falls!; CP Rises, Hitler Chosen
        D. Right Hated Soc Support of Hindenburg '32, Chooses Nazis; Democratic Suicide; Power Achieved Legally
        E. Hitler/Savior: Rearm, Recover Freedom/Honor Restored/Sacrificed
        F. Xenophobic View of '19/'23/'29: Food/RM/Race Security: Econ Stability, Lebensraum
        G. Though War Post-Recovery, Depression Unrest Aided Hitler, Germany Hostile & Capable
        H. Machtergreifung of Parties/Unions/Federal States Absorbed;  Used Old Guard Schacht/Reichswehr
                1. Link to Analysis of Nazism  

                2. Link to Calvin College Archive of Nazi Propaganda  & Especially to Wartime Propaganda

         I. 1934 "Night of Long Knives" Consolidates Power: SS Destroys Röhm's Violent SA Brownshirts
                1. Order Reassures German/European Right about NSDAP: Appeasers Ignore Evidence of Brutal Hitler
                2. Papen Typifies Herrenklub Blindness, Trying to Coopt Nazis!?!
                3. Victims Left & Right: Complicit in Officers' Death, Army Corrupted, Leads to Nazi Power Monopoly
                4. Germany Well Placed to Capitalize Upon Successor States Strife
         J. Dollfuss Dies, Mussolini Marches to Brenner Pass;  Germany Rearms, and Mussolini Joins Stresa Pact '35

  

IX. 1936:  Fears Realized: Spanish Civil War: A Dress Rehearsal of Ideas/Arms
        A. Link to Catalog of SCW Posters at UCal-San Diego 
        B. Spanish Hates: Republic Hated by Anarchists, Army, Clergy   Link to Orwell's Account


                1. Rival Burials: Death of Democracy in Austria, Spain, NIreland
                2. FFranco Needs Outside Aid to Restore Pure Spain (Airlift)
        C. Republicans (USSR) vs Franco (Germany & Italy Draw Closer)         (Britain,  France?)
        D. Mussolini: Why? Ego, Med, Reds;      Nazis: Reds, Distract, Aldershot, Ore
        E. France/Britain/USA: Wild Emotions, Strict Neutrality, Non-Intervention
                1. British Tory Govt Anti-Nat'lization & Red Gains; No RN Help
                2.
FrenchPopular Front: Needs Britain versus Germany, Domestic Fears of Own Civil War
                3. Int'l Brigades: Passions High, Media Bias; US Embargo
         F USSR: Ideology & Prolongation w/Supplies; Fate of Activists: Link to Trotskyite View of SCW (p.5)
         G. Hardware: Bomber Will Always Get Through: Condor Legion
                1. Guernica: History, Myth, Art...Ongoing Basque Efforts
                2. Franco: Blame Anarchists; OK Target; Not Destroyed byBombs
         H. Govts' Stake Restrained,  Yet Spanish Civil War Makes War Imaginable Again for Leftists: A CAUSE!
          I. Yet Spanish Civil War Also Prevents Effective Anti-German Coalition
          J. French Gov't Falls as It Closes Border to Aid, So No Govt @Anschluss: Same Old Story
         K. Spanish Civil War: Ideological Confusion Erodes Western Will: A Direct/Indirect Cause of WW2

 

X. 1935: USSR: Revolution Unleashes Questions About Radical Change: Great Purge (homage to Stalin)
         A. Brutal Terror Amid Social Scientific Certainty: Is Cause Democratic Centralism, or CPSU, or Stalin?
         B. Early '20s: Consolidate Socialism in 1 Country: Wait for Revolution (NEP)
         C. Late '20s: Consolidate Stalin's Power: Collectivize/Rapid Industrialization Through Terror
         D. Consumer Goods, Agr Population/Production Fall : Liquidate Kulaks to Break Peasants/Labor
         E. Int'l Context: Dictators Rise/West Weak: Stalin Tries to Push West Forward: Popular Front
         F. Domestic Context: Kill All Possible Political/Military Internal Rivals: Opportunist re Kirov's Death '34
                 1. Stalin May Not Have Personally Authorized Kirov's Death, But Uses to Keep All Power
                 2. Personality Cult (Venerate Stalin) Intensifies, Accused Old Bolshies of Links w/Trotsky
                 3. '36: Purges Accelerate Amid Hypocritical Constitution: Zinoviev/Kamenev/Connected
                 4. '37: Radek & Pyatakov; '38: Bukharin, Rykov & Krestinsky
                 5. '37: Mil Purge (Rapallo): Tukhachevsky Executed: Professional, Maybe Too Set on War
                 6. False Evidence: SS versus Armies   1/3 Officer Corps Gone, Up to 80-90% Colonels/Generals
                 7. Cannibals' Kafkaesque Incomprehensibility: Spanish Vets Shot & NKVD Investigators!
                 8. Also Ordinary/Foreign Communists & Acquaintances of Executed Shot
         G. How & Why: Methods: What is Truth? CPSU's Historically Determined Triumph: Link to Official Party History
                 1. Fictitious Defendants & Confessions: Knowledge of Other Crimes? Sense of Guilt?
                 2. Family Threatened; Confessors Implicate Others Quest for Control Spirals Out of Control
                 3. Exclusion from Party Intolerable Even As It Killed You: Link to Online Summary of Purge
         H. Consequences: Impact on USSR's Military Power & Long Term Viability of Int'l Communism
                 1. Involved Include All Leaders to 1985/Cold War (Effects on USSR Initiatives & Western Trust?)
                 2. Blind Loyalty to Stalin: Fear, Lies & Reality; Western Media Views Delay Full Comprehension
                 3. Affects British/French Options re Munich, Summer 1939, Finland
                 4. Western Right-Wing Willingness to Appease Hitler
          I.
If Choice Forced, Which Would You Have Chosen to live Under? Nazism or Communism?

 

XI.  Britain Tempered Yet Real Class Conflict: Economy, Trenches/BOMBER Dictate appeasement
        A. Baldwin: Unity/Amity over Leadership post-Zinoviev Letter Fraud '24 & General Strike '26
        B. Labour Wins '29, Falls '31: Aid 20% Unemployed or Balance Budget? Royal Navy Mutinies over Pay
        C. Imperial Preference  '32: Econ/Pol Focus on Empire; Retaliates for Smoot-Hawley; Influence on E Europe?
        D. Early Devaluation: Boosts Exports Briefly, But Retaliation...Retain Markets?
                1. Just Rearming Might Bankrupt: WAR? No, Can't Win Short/Can't Sustain Long War
                2.
Trade Balance 4th Arm (Invisibles): Treasury--Can't Rearm or Fight: Imports Up, Exports Down; Johnson Act Cuts Off US $
        E. Imperially Vulnerable: Mediterranean/Singapore: Need Allies vs Too Many Enemies! Only France?

        F. Befriend Italy, Japan? USA Opposes Conciliating Japan; Dominions Ignore EEur; USSR: Suspects Intent to Bleed Reds

        G. National Gov't: Chamberlain Fears War Winners Labour in UK, US in Empire, USSR in Europe
        H. Case Study: 1936: Long-term Economic Decline in Jarrow Northeastern Shipbuilding   Link
                1. Uncompetitive Industry w/Extra Capacity: Lithgow's Perceived Role in Tyneside Tragedy/WW2
                2. Red Ellen Protests in Constitutional Context, Parochials Reject Jobs Enroute
         I. REITERATE: SQ DEMOCRACIES: NO DESIRE FOR WAR: MUNICH/APPEASEMENT


XII. What is Overall Impact of Ideology? Does it Cause War? Does it Shape War?
         A. How Firmly Should We Believe in Our Political Ideologies?
         B. Does Preparation for War Produce War? Or Does It Produce Peace?
 

 

 

 

 

 

FROM PEACE TOWARD WAR: THE DICTATORS' THREAT THROUGH SPRING 1938

I.  Hitler/Germans Defy Versailles: Opportunist w/Overall Aims/Plan
         A. Go BEYOND Versailles/Self-Determination/Military Parity/Polish Corridor...to What Kind of War?
         B. MEIN KAMPF: Enough Living Space? Racial/Nat'l Hegemony: Lebensraum
                   1. "Racial Suicide" or Better Agriculture? NO! Beyond  1914--Racial Emigration: Adjacent Expansion East
                   2. From  Stresemann's Revisionism to Hitler's Racist Aggression
                   3. Racial Cleansing of Jews & Slavs ( & Communists)
                   4. French Obstacle, Russian Enemy, Italy Ally, USA Eventual Target
                   5. British Ally?: Dislike German Methods, Not Apparent Aims
                            a. Don't Clearly Object to Germany as #1 in Central & Eastern Europe: How Far?
                            b. Accept Change Needed, Insist on Talks, Not Force (But Coercive Negotiations Rely on Threats!)
                            c. US & USSR: Econ/Military/Ideological Threat to Both Germany & Britain
                            d. Won't Repeat Kaiser/Tirpitz Surface Navy Contest
                            e. Germany Wants Bilateral Alliance to Unleash Germany on USSR
                            f.  Britain Wants Multilateral Accords to Create Stable Peace
         C. Early Rhetoric & Reality: Conciliation/Confrontation Mixed: How Hitler Bobbed & Weaved
 
                   1. West Hopes for Restraint: "Can't Really Mean What He Said"
                   2. May 1933: Renews German-Soviet 1926 Treaty of Berlin & July 1933: Vatican Concordat
                   3. October 1933: Quits Disarmament Conference (Camouflage), Exits League of Nations
                   4. German-Polish Treaty, Jan 1934: Flexible, Peaceful, End Isolation?... Or Disrupt Fr Alliances & Target USSR
                   5. Long Knives (June 1934): Violent, But Eliminated Left Wing
                   6. Nazi Coup in Austria (July 1934): Dollfuss Dead, Mussolini to Brenner
                   7. Denounce Military Clauses of Versailles/Open Rearming (March 1935)


II.  Wider Context: The Weaker Challengers: Italy & Japan Contrasted
         A. Italy: Ambitious Yet Economy Underdeveloped & Dependent
                   1. Locarno Guarantor/Stresa Shifts to Axis: Fatal Attraction
                   2. Rearm Early, But Swiftly Obsolete, for Spain/Africa Costly
                   3. Leadership & Training Poor: Liability for Germans
                   4. Fascist Emphasis on Rural Virtue Yet Divided Nation North/South
                   5. Underequipped, Mussolini  Hopeless Manager, Yet Perception of Strength
          B. Japanese Threat Underrated: Ongoing Econ Growth & Ambition
                   1. Trained, Spirited, Patriotic Troops; Carrier Strength Yet Interservice Bickering & Weak Civilian "Control"
                   2. '31 Attack Undermines League; '37 Attack Distracts Britain & US 
Link To US Amb Assessment of Powerful Japan
                   3. Expansionist Policy: Making Wrong (Anglo-American) Enemies
                   4. Dependence on Imported Raw Materials: Context for Pearl Harbor


III.  Hesitant French Response: Toward Collective Security with Soviet Aid?
          A. Security Over Ideology: Barthou's Realpolitik Effort (Link to Brief online biography of Barthou)
          B. Revives Old East European Alliances, Seeks New: Italy & USSR
          C. Tenuous Franco-Sovt Alliance Established (1934-35) Fear Unites: Status Quo Power & Revisionist Ignore 1917-9
                   1. Germans Rearm 3/35, So Alliance Enacted (5/35), But Eastern Europe Upset, Fears Nearby Soviets
                           a. Barthou Tries Eastern Locarno With Parallel Russian-French Pact
                           b. Polish Hatred of Russia Destroys Eastern Locarno: So Does No Hapsburg Substitute Cause WW2?
                   2. Popular Front: Comintern Approval of Co-Operation
                   3. French Right Hates Popular Front,  Inhibits Co-Op; Implement w/o Staff Talks?

          D. Does USSR Want Stability/Peace/Status Quo?
          E. Italo-French Co-Operation? Amid Central European Rivalry?
                   1. Barthou Dies: Croatian Separatism  Sponsored by Mussolini, Successor Laval Inept Overall After Initial "Success"
                   2. Builds on Barthou: Establish Stresa Front (4/35):  No More Violations of VT Obligations (Austria/Arms)
                   3. Popular Front Govt & Ethiopian War Undermine Franco-Italian Co-Operation
          F. Defections: Britain Partly (British-German Naval Treaty 6/35), Italy/Belgium Out
                   1. Mussolini Angry at League Sanctions & British/French Colonial Hypocrisy
                   2.
Franco-Italian Alliance Kaput: 15 Divisions Now Needed in Alps
                   3. Rhine Remilitarized: Belgium Drops French Ally     What Purpose Now for Maginot Line?


IV. Germany: Aggressive, Capable, Terrifying, Overrated? Link to Article about Myths of German Wartime Performance

          A. Tremendous Record of Victories ('35-) '39-41 Hides Flaws
          B. Buildup Threatens Breakdown: Fragile Recovery From 1914-25
          C. Decision-Making Chaos: Breakneck Expansion: Demands Overlap
          D. Synthetics, Barter & Exchange Controls, But Foreign $$ Needed for Raw Materials
                  1. Restrictive Trade Agreements Aim: Block Marks' Use
                  2. Eastern Europeans Sell Germany Food/Raw Materials, Can Buy Only What Germany Sells
                  3. German Shortages Remain:  Only Real Answer War
                  4. Consequences of Limits: Desire & Need Plunder/Booty
                  5. Germany Needs War: Rapid Rearmament to Expand & Enable Rearmament
                  6. So Hitler Causes WW2? What Does This Suggest About Marxist Analysis of Capitalism?
           E. Answer to Contradictions: Blitzkrieg's Operational Doctrine, Relative Effectiveness
           F. Tank Concentration (Fewer than France) & Close Air Support
           G. Mobility & Equipment Limited: Reliance on Horses, No Strategic Bomber
                   1. How Far Can You Go with Blitzkrieg/Nazi Racism? When Stop?
                   2. Rearming Wide Not Deep: LONG WAR? Strong Relative to Whom?
                   3. After Lebensraum: The Z Plan (1/39) and World Power
            H. Yet Western Perceptions of German Power Lead to Munich/Appeasement
             I. Did a Missed Chance to Curb Hitler's Ambition Cause WW2?


V.  German Unilateral Assault on Versailles System (Ethiopian Cover): Link to Article Providing Insights about Working for Hitler
 
            A. Remilitarizing Rhineland, 3/36: "Germany's Backyard"
                    1. Does WW2 Begin Here? 
                    2. Ostensibly Franco-USSR "Red Menace" Excuse; Rhineland is German  Springboard Later
                    3. Hoare-Laval Mess Overthrows French Govt, Divides Britain & France: Link to Hoare's Whining Justification
                    4. Contrast France at Ruhr '23 & Rhine '36:  Will France Ever Fight?
                            a. Brits Perceive Self-Determination, Ignore Power
                            b. Govt Weak, Army Staff Adds to Intelligence on  German Troop Deployment
                            c. Pivotal? Would Hitler Really Have Quit Without War?
                            d. Poland & Little Entente Gravitate Toward Germany
             B. German/Austrian Anschluss, 3/38: Does WW2 Begin Here?
                    1. Austrian Identity? & Question of Self-Determination: Anschluss Surrounds Czechs 

                    2. Hitler's Opportunism: Intimidated Schuschnigg Provokes
                    3. Invited Enables Claim of Legitimate Form; Red Vienna Dead Inhibit Leftist Response; French NO GOVT
                    4. Link to Austrian Views of Anschluss &   "Plebiscite"
                    5.
Repeated Improvisations Suggest Bi-Yearly Schedule
                    6. Allies Will Eventually Resist Intolerable Subversion/Threats
                    7. Controversy over Hitler's Approach/Blame: Link to Description of Taylor Thesis
 
                    8. German Economic Stranglehold over EEur Successor States/Rivals Develops
             C. Have-Nots Emboldened to Challenge Status Quo: French Bulwark Weak
 
 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 1938: MUNICH & APPEASEMENT'S ROOTS, PRACTICE & FAILURE

I. Appeasement's Motives: Methodism, Markets, Many Dangers, Masses

II. German Pressure on  Czechoslovakia: Sudeten Self-Det Protests, 1938: Link to Detailed Documentation & More Documentation
         A. Czech Multinational State: Only Real Democracy Left in Eastern Europe
         B. Sudetens Had Never Been Part of the Reich: Pretext for Power Grab
         C. Konrad Henlein Subversive, Totalitarian, Denies Nazi Links

III. British/French Response: Munich & Appeasement: Czechoslovakia's Doom
         A. Defensive French Need Britain to Resist: Would Resolve Deter? Provoke?
         B. Britain: Reasonable Conciliation Preferred over Deterrence
                  1. Balance of Power Approach Morally, Practically Impossible!
                         a. Ally Across Ideological Divide & WW1 Memories? Encircle
                         b. Purges Weaken USSR; Their Motives?: Embroil West?
                         c. Litvinov Promised Aid: Gambit To Trap West In War?
                         d. Germany the "Natural" #1 European Power: French System Artificial
                         e. Axis & Anti-Comintern Threat: Multiple-Front War?
                   2. Locarno Heritage: Germany Go East! Ditch France's Allies?
                         a. But German Power Accretion Threatens West Europe
                         b. Is Eastern Europe Less Important to Britain Than to France  (or USA?)
                   3. Neville Chamberlain: Reason Over Passion: Passionate Hate of War
                         a. Confidently Negotiates From Weakness: No Long War, No War
                         b. Can't Make Obvious Wish To Avoid War at All Costs
                         c. Sic vis pacem para bellum: Hatred of War: Leverage?
                   4. Ducking Insufficient; Active Resolution Needed to Prevent Accident
           C.
5/38 Crisis: Br & Fr Blame "Provocative Czechs": Need Resolution: Link to Summary w/Photo & Audio Links
           D. 9/38 Escalation:  Nüremberg Speech & Sudeten Harassment
                    1. Innocent Hitler Furious at Perception of His Apparent Back Down 5/38: He wants WAR!!
                    2. Though Satisfying Henlein Would Mean Detaching Sudetens, British Seek Settlement In Czechoslovakia!
                    3. 1st Flight to Berchtesgaden: Chamberlain Concedes Annexation of  Sudetenland: Link to Discussion
                          a. Hitler Excludes Polish/Hungarian Demands on Teschen/Slovakia
                          b. British & French Withdraw Support: Czechs Capitulate
                    4. Appeasement's Coercive Aspect: Hitler Creates Crisis; Brits Coerce Czechs!
                    5. Godesberg:  Surprised Hitler Includes Polish & Hungarian Demand
                           a. Hitler Seeks Immediate Occupation: Question Becomes the Method of Transfer
                           b. Hitler Wants Quick Bilateral War; Britain/France Resist to Forestall Unilateral Gains Made By Force
                           c. Western Public Outrage: The Shift Begins Now, Though Relief at Peace is Real
                           d. Evacuation/Gas Mask Horror:  Chamberlain Determined to get PEACE
            E. War Imminent?: Munich Conference: Western Will Collapses at Last Minute:
                    1. Musso Sponsors Neville's Locarno: Mediate w/GERMAN Plan
                           a.
Hitler Sought War, Yet Opponents Aided Racial Utopia w/ Multilateral Agreement to Nearly Identical Terms
                           b. Quick Military Occupation; Guarantee Czechs After Poles/Hungarians Get Their Slice
                    2. Negotiate Legal Czech Surrender: No Fight for Sudetenland: Poor Hitler: No War
                    3. Brits Abandon Czechs, Embitter Unwilling USA, Exclude "Eager" USSR: Nazi/Soviet Pact '39
                    4.  British Euphoria/Regret: Link to Agreement TextLink to "Peace In Our Time" Upon Return
                          a. Link to Chamberlain's Speech in Defense in Commons
                          b. Illogical/Impractical British Guarantee of Truncated Czechia
                          c. Munich Not Better Than Godesberg: Cowardly Sacrifice of Others for Peace Gradually Disillusions
                          d. Unhappy Hitler Determines to Get War Next Time: Link to 1997 Mutual Apology

            F. Full Evaluation of Munich Requires Look Ahead: Does Munich Cause World War 2?

 

 

 

 

  IV. 1939 Disillusionment: German Actions Cause Western Re-Evaluation
           A. Beyond Civilization & Self-Determination & Liberation to Conquest
                    1. Kristallnacht, 11/38 (Link to US Holocaust Memorial Museum  & Controversy: Use of Nazi Euphemism)
                    2. Hitler's Goals?: 1/39 Z Plan Involves Overseas & Continental Goals
                    3.
Britain BETRAYED: Germans' Next Push is for Hegemonic Goal Though apparently Self-Determination Again
                    4. 2-3/39: Liberal Hopes Gone: Guarantee POLES/Conscript; End of Czechoslovakia, 3/39
                    5. End Limited Liability: Late Continental Commitment to French: Where Was This Before? Lessons for NATO
                    6.
4/39: Italy Annexes Albania; Britain/France Guarantee Greece & Rumania: Mussolini's Actual Motivation?
                    7. Revisionists' Co-Operation Limited: Italy/Germany (not Japan Yet: Focused on China) Pact of Steel
             B. German Pressure on Poland: with Poles v USSR or with USSR v Poland? Josef Beck Resists
                    1. Demands: Danzig, Corridor Across Corridor, Join Anti-Comintern Pact: Poles Won't Cave
                    2. Courageous Amoral (Teschen) Poles Will Fight & Lose

V. Competition for USSR Cooperation: Genesis of Nazi-Soviet Pact
         A. Sovt Military Investment/Industr'l Growth at Great Agricultural/Social Cost
                    1. Isolated from Great Depression: Public Relations Victory
                    2. Control over Innovation at Every Level: Purges Weaken
          B. Catchup: Effort, Purge Enemies, Get Friends: From Popular Front to Munich to Nazi-Soviet Pact
          C.  West Needs Help to Fulfill Polish Pledge as Political/Military Talks w/USSR Crawl
                    1. Can't Let USSR Enter Threatened States Against Their Will, But
                    2. USSR Wants Red Army into (Eastern, White Russian & Ukrainian) Poland Pre-War (Won't Leave)
                    3. Can't Give USSR Poland & East Europe To Save From Germany & Stop Hitler, Can You? 
Don't You (1945)?
                    4. Chamberlain Fears Alliance with USSR Encircles & Provokes Germans
                    5. Polish Pledge Rules Out USSR As Ally Chamberlain Didn't Want
                    6. Chamberlain Still Hoped Gestures Wd Be Enough, HalfHearted
                    7. British/French Peons Dally, Hitler Hurries: Stalin Wooed
                    8. 5/39 Signal: Molotov Replaces Jew Litvinov as Commissar
          D. Nazis Offer USSR Non-Aggression Pact & Eastern European Sphere of Influence
                    1. From Popular Front/Collective Security 1934-38 to Nazi-Soviet Pact
                    2.
Nazi-Soviet Pact: Appeases, Turns Nazis West Post-Poland: Link to Terms
                    3. Blueprint for Aggression: 4th Partition of Poland  (Does Nazi-Soviet Pact Cause World War 2?)
          E. Evaluate Nazi-Soviet Pact: Doomed France/Poles: Stalin Sensible? Inept?
                    1. Avoid Western Combination vs USSR & Delay Invasion & Supplied Nazis
                    2. Revise Post-WW1 Borders & Gain Territory, But Also Gain Common Border!
                    3. Never Enhanced Defenses Systematically: OK til France Falls
           F. Where/When Will Necessary Anti-German Coalition Arise?: Link to Scholarly Analysis of Failure to Achieve Grand Alliance of Britain, France & USSR, Blaming West & Mostly Exonerating USSR & to Online Review of His Book 

 VI. Britain: Why War for Poland, Not Czechs? France Will Fight (Defensively)
           A. Labour/Dissenter Pressure that Hitler Cannot Be Trusted
           B. Fight in '39: We Can: Air Confidence Growing, RDF Developing, German Economy Thought Weakening

VII. Hitler  Goes to War: Germans Cause War; British Decisions Dictate Timing
           A. British Resolve Post-Nazi/Soviet Pact  Surprises Hitler: Delays 6 Days to Try & Detach Britain
                    1. Nazi-Soviet Pact 8/23; Anglo-Polish Alliance 8/25
                    2.
British Support for Independence But Not Integrity
           B. Hitler Wants Polish War, Expects British & French Concessions: NO!!
           C. British Resolve: Coerce & Deter Hitler to Backdown; If Not: War!
           D. British Guarantee CAUSES Overdue 1939 War (1938 Context)
           E. German Attack, 1 Sept '39: From Shaky Peace to WAR
           F. British & French Do Delay 2 Days to Co-Ordinate (& Perhaps Appease?): Audio Link to Declaration of War
           G. Peace Required German  Patience, Real British/French/Russian Alliance, or Continued Appeasement
           H. British/French Keep Promise, Get Ultra Intelligence!

 

 

VIII. Nazi Methods' Eventual Impact Repopularizes Balance of Power Approach
           A. Does Appeasement = Peace at ANY Price, Or are There Limits?
           B. We've Been Deceived! Betrayed! Make Him Pay!
           C. Is War Declaration Abandonment or Fulfillment of Appeasement?
           D. Mix of Conciliation/Coercion Failed: Unbalanced, Disbelieved
           E. Improvised Bi-Yearly Subversions Eventually Resisted

IX. Assessment: Who Benefited Most From Munich? Was It Worth It?   Link to Debate in Commons & Contemporary Assessments
          A. Were They "Guilty Men?" Was "The Gathering Storm" Unnecessary?
          B. Or Was Britain a "Troubled Giant?" a "Weary Titan?"
          C. What Motivates Our View of Appeasement?
          D. Appeasers' Case: Breather Gained So Public & Dominions Ready in '39
                   1. Chamberlain Not A Wimp, Actually Too Confident
                   2.
Spitfire Developed Meanwhile!  Yet Slow Western Military Buildup Overall
                   3.  Chamberlain Sought Lasting Real Peace Not Delay; He was Unrealistic
                   4. British Say Eastern Europe was  Irrelevant,  Yet Impeded France in 1938, Pledged to Aid in 1939
                           a. Britain  Thereby Becomes #1 German Enemy '38-'41
                           b. Try To Avoid German Blame for 1914 (We Didn't Expect...)
                           c. British Coercion '38 (May Act) Leads to Peace/Dishonor Anyway
                           d. British Coercion '39 (Will Act) Leads to War Anyway
          E. Year May Have Saved Britain But Lost Europe, Embittered USA
                   1. LUFTWAFFE Bomber Range: Could Not Have Reached British Soil in 1938
                   2. Yet Czech Raw Materials, Gold, Skoda Arms Plant, Army Lost, Stalin's Paranoid View of West Accelerated
          F. Alternatives: Chiefs of Staff View of Military Balance was Excessively, Perhaps Deliberately Bleak
                   1. COS Never Considered Impact of Czech Loss
                   2. Another Win for Terror: Czech Gold/Equipment Used Against Poland
          G. Would German Generals Have Overthrown Hitler (Prestige Growing): Enduring Myth
                   1. All Generals Hesitant: Ludwig Beck Resigns Yet West Feeble Too
                   2. Omits West's Hatred of War: Playing Chicken
                   3.
Postwar Cold War Anti-Appeasers and Rehabilitation of Germans Served By This Myth
          H.
So is Honor/Character Relevant in Assessing Leadership?

X. Lessons Learned: Hitler Unappeasable: Are All Dictators?
          A. Is Appeasement Ever Moral? Was Hitler A Rational Partner?
          B. Future Leaders Hampered By Reluctance to Ever Be Seen Appeasing! Memory Too Good
                   1.
US Appeasers Kennedy (& Bullitt): Impact on JFK Etc.
                   2. Ongoing Use of Munich: Nasser '56, Ho '60s, Saddam '91
          C. What Can We Learn From History?
          D. Collective Security Breaks Promises or Makes Every Little War= Big War

 

XI. Declaration of War: Aquinas' Conditions: A Just War?
          A. Declaration by a Legitimate Authority (State): Yes
          B. Just Cause: Yes
          C. Right Intention: Yes
          D. Last Resort: Yes--the Virtue of Appeasement
          E. Reasonable Hope of Success: ????

 

XII. Conditions for Conduct of a Just War
          A. Due Proportion Between Benefits Sought & Damage Incurred: ??
          B. Non-combatant Immunity: ??

 


 
 

  PHONEY WAR?: POLAND & SCANDINAVIA

I.  Germany Defeats Poland: Axis Initiative Continues Thanks to Blitzkrieg
        A. Poles Lose Quickly, 1 September-5 October 39: Outnumbered/outequipped/outflanked
(Cavalry Charge?)
                 1. No Western Front/Aid: France/Britain Mobilize Slowly, Germans Focus on Poles
                 2. British Request: Delay Mobilizing to Avoid Provoking Germany
                 3. Political Need to Defend Corridor: Outflanked: Link to Map of Divided Poland
                         a. No Defense in Depth Possible of Long Borders (Czech,Prussia)
                         b. No Withdrawal Possible for Effective Counterattack, Fighting Retreat Invited Envelopment Pincers
                         c. Panzers Breakthrough & Exploit  & Infantry Follow-up
                         d. Crucial USSR Assault Ends War Early (Often Forgotten that USSR Was Cobelligerent, Not Neutral)
(Polish View)
          B. Horrific Aftermath: Toll: 70000 Killed September 39; 4-5 million civilians Later
          C. MassMurder @Home Too: Euthanise "Defective"  Germans: Mentally Ill, Old, Wounded: Link to Account 

                   1.  Bishop Galen's Sermon Condemning Euthanasia   & to Review of Award-Winning Book on Nazi Euthanasia
          D.
More Die in Warsaw Than Entire British & US Death Toll
          E. Contribution: Role in Battle of Britain; Anders' Army to USSR
                   1. ENIGMA Codebreakers Evacuated & Progress Kept Secret
                   2. Escapees Warned West of Holocaust in 1942 & Prominent Role at Monte Cassino in Italy, 1944
                   3. Warned & Transported V-2 Engine to British  (Peenemünde)
                   4. Govt in Exile: Sikorski PM & Commander-in-Chief until 1943: But No Ukrainians on Ruling Council!
                          a. Undemocratic Govt Since 1926 Now Necessarily Continues With Limited Credibility
                          b. Khrushchev Civilian Boss in Lwow Manages Annexation Fraud
                          c. Katyn 1940: Soviets Massacre '000s of Officers: Link to Emotional Appeal Illustrating Context
                   5. Katyn Revelation in 1943 Leads to Broken Relations and USSR Sponsors Lublin Puppet Alternative
           F. USSR Active German Partner: Implications for British Blockade!!


II.  Phoney War/Sitzkrieg/Bore War: Only Real Fighting At Sea
          A. Britain Won't Yet Bomb Arms Plants, Since They're Private Property; Fear Revenge
          B. Hitler Ready to Go West, Wehrmacht Cautious: 29 Delays, Meanwhile USA Sumner Welles Mission 3/40


III. Scandinavian War, 1: Winter War, 11/39 to 3/40: USSR Attacks Finns
          A. USSR: Nazi/Soviet Pact Designated Finland in Soviet Sphere (Had Been Russian, 1809-1917)
                   1. Stalin Wants Leningrad Security: Karelia & Hanko Naval Base
          B. Inspired Resistance/War: Purges, Arrogance, Little Daylight, Skis/White Uniforms
                   1. Finns' Defense Broken in Feb 40: No Effective Aid (Link to Finnish Website on Winter War)
                   2. Draconian Peace Leads to Renewed War in 1941-44 as Nazi Ally: Link to Map of Finns' Land Seized
          C. Result: USSR 200K Dead, Credibility Undermined: Invites German Attack
          D. British/French Response: Proper Strategy?  French Less Hopeful of Results from Blockade
                   1.
Delay Helps West Arm, But Stalin Supplies Hitler
                   2. French Indecision Criticized at Home: PM Reynaud Replaces Daladier, 3/40-6/40
                   3. French Fear Nazi-Soviet Pact Unleashes Germany on West, so Maybe Attack USSR to Deny Nazi Swede
                       Iron Ore & Caucasus Oil? & Relieve Finn!?? Link to Blurb for & Review of Book on British Plans


IV.  Scandinavian War, 2: Norway & Denmark, 4/40: Hitler Preempts Again
           A. Though Finland Quits, British Prepare to Mine Norwegian Waters to Deny Ice-Free Route for Swedish Ore
           B. British Failure in Norway: (Apr/May 1940): Churchill as Prime Minister
                   1. Tho German Naval Inferior, 1st on Scene: Wehrmacht Can't Be Dislodged
                   2. Br/Fr Win @Narvik, But Exit 6/40 Amid Fr Crisis, Get Norwegian Fleet into Exile to Benefit Allies
                   3. Germans GAIN Norwegian Heavy Water (Deuterium Oxide [Atomic]) & Bases: Pincer for Atlantic Battle
                   4. Link to Analysis of Swedish Codebreaking & Efforts to Remain Neutral

 

 

 

 

 

 

FALL GELB: THE FALL OF FRANCE

I. Nazi Attack Thru Ardennes: Manstein/Rundstedt's SICHELSCHNITT
          A. French Fall (5-6/1940): Ends European  Balance of Power & Endangers US & USSR 6/41
          B. WHY FALL?: "Strange Defeat"?  French Democracy Hollow, Divided?
                   1. Vichy Right Exploits Loss versus Left: Ideological Conflict Distracts From French Army's Failure!
                   2. Maginot Not Extended Behind Belg/Fr Border: NE Fr Industrialized & Can't Abandon Unwise Belgium
                   3. French Aid to Belgium Catastrophic: Ambitious Sortie Forward: Plan D/Breda Variant Uses Reserves
                   4. German Army Not Superior Numerically: Surprise, Doctrine, Organization!
                   5. Link to Great Site for War Maps: All onwar.com maps © Copyright Ralph Zuljan 2000
                   6. Link German Propaganda: Why They Won in '40, & Why '40 Armistice was much Kinder than 1919 Treaty
          C. Army Group A Panzer Blitzkrieg into Ardennes: LOCALLY Superior 3:1
                   1. Divisions: 44A 29B against NBelg; 17C against Maginot: Divides Allied Left & Right
                   2. Poor Staff Work: Missed Chance at Combined Counterattack
                   3. C-in-C HQ's Dispersed With Poor Communications
                   4. Panic: 8-10m Refugees Clog Roads & Kill Messengers
                   5. Belgian Retreat Prevents British Attack; French Misused Tanks
                   6. Reynaud Replaces Gamelin & Defeatist Weygand Wastes Time
          D. British Retreat to Dunkirk: "Miracle" 338K Escape (French Rearguard)
                   1. Hitler Not Merciful: Sought to Annihilate, But Trusts Ineffective GAF
                   2. Hitler Wary of Counterattacks: Needed Armor vs French: Halt Order
II. NOW WHAT? Internal Reaction to Fall of France: French Political System Collapses
          A. Flee or Cooperate?: Defeatist Pétain Won't Desert France to Fight On From Empire
          B. Pétain Heads New VICHY Regime: Govt Must Stay in France to Maintain Order In Ruin
          C. Sacre Coeur (vs. Commune 1871) Mentalité: Repent, Duty to Erect a New France
          D. From Liberty, Fraternity, Equality to Work, Family, Fatherland
          E. Pétain (84) Willing Collaborator, But DeGaulle Flees to Head Free French
          F. British Had Withheld Fighters for Home Defence, Causes Recriminations (Also over Oran)
          G. German Occupation Thievery: 20m Marks/Day, Augments German  GNP 25%+
III. Pike:
PCF (French Communists) Resistance 6/40-6/41: Controversial Communist Role: After 6/41: Battle for Memory
         A.
Puppets Twist: Popular Front (Support) to Nazi/Sovt Pact (Anti-war) to Fr Fall (Seek End) to Barbarossa (Resistance)
         B.
PCF Indicts West: Criminally Lazy & Imperialist Plot, Criticized Combatants as Equal, Dislikes British & DeGaulle
         C.
PCF Later Insisted It Began Resistance pre-Barbarossa, to Emphasize its Patriotism & Maneuver for Postwar Power
         D. Yet PCF Organ L'Humanite Promoted Fraternization w/Nazis
                   1. L'Humanite Offered to Publish Openly Under Germans, But Petain's Veto Saved Them Later Embarrassment
                   2. Comintern Ordered Other Western European Communist Papers to Run Openly, & They Did
                   3. To "Demoralize" Occupiers? No, To Obey Stalin
         E. Ex Post Facto Counterfeit L'Humanite Issue of 10 July '40
                   1."
Proves" Ongoing Total Resistance, But There are No References in Subsequent Legitimate Issues
                   2. No News of Unsanctioned Resisters, so Honor Anonymous LATER
                   3. Yes, NO ONE (of Any Political Sympathy) Launched Armed Organized Resistance prior to June 1941
                   4. Yes, Some Rebellious PCFs Did Sporadic Sabotage Prior to June 1941Against Orders
                   5.
Yet They Violated PCF/Comintern Order to Follow DeGaulle; Nazi Surveillance for What It Was/Not What It Did
                   6. Link: Review of Controversial  Books about Resistance Hero/Gaullist Jean Moulin & Survey of His Career
                   7.
Link: Analysis of Moulin Murderer Klaus Barbie & his Controversial 1987 Trial in Lyon: Is Holocaust Unique?

IV. NOW WHAT?: External Responses to the Fall of France
        A. USSR: Swallow Baltic States/Bessarabia
        B. Germany: Atlantic Bases; Dominate Continent; French Fleet's Future?
        C. What Will Britain Do? Should Britain Have Quit?
        D. Italy: Corsica/Malta/Tunis/Egypt? GO TO WAR: Throw Away 35% Merchant Ships
        E.  Japan's Opportunistic Move into Indochina: Step on Path to Pearl Harbor
        F. USA: Roosevelt's Final Decision to Run for Re-Election/Democratic National Convention

 

 

 

THEIR FINEST HOUR: THE BATTLE OF BRITAIN

I. Myth & Reality of "Never Surrender": British Wobble & Muddle On
        A. Reynolds: Peace? British /Churchill Statements on Peace Talks & US Differ Between Public Rhetoric & Private Talks
                 1. Churchill Couldn't Ignore Peaceseekers, Since His Political Base Was Uncertain
                         a. Link to the Official Churchill Website & Journal: "Finest Hour"
                 2. Foreign Secretary Halifax, Pushed Aside from Premiership, Hoped to See Terms And Reject If Need Be
                         a. Churchill 5/26: Would Yield (Some) Colonies If Independence Kept, But Hitler Wd Want More
                         b. Churchill 5/28: Won't Get Worse Terms Later Even If Beaten: FIGHT!
                         c. Cabinet Move 5/26-28:  Decide Examining Terms NOW Would Weaken Will
                         d. All Decide to Fight At Least Until RAF Wins Battle of Britain & Then Maybe Talk of Compromise
                 3. Dunkirk Evacuation of Many & Best Troops Saved the Army: FIGHT!
                 4. WSC Publicly Denies Thought of Compromise: Privately, Gradually Moves to Unconditional Surrender '43
                 5. By Then, Blitz, and US & USSR Entry Make Victory Needed & Possible
         B. HOW Fight in 1940: How Beat Germany? How Likely is USA Help?
                 1. Rhetoric No Guarantee of Survival & Wars Not Won By Evacuations
                 2. War of Attrition & Big British Expeditionary Force Unimaginable & Unnecessary
                 3.
British Way of War Updated: Blockade as Usual/Continental Ally As Yet Unavailable/Bomb: A New Approach
                         a. BLOCKADE: Overestimated Vulnerability of German Economy!
                                (1) Misunderstood German Goal was in the EAST & Underrated German Economic Capability
                                (2) German Economy Still in Blitzkrieg Mode: Fully Mobilizes in 1943
                         b. BOMB, Especially After Blitz
                         c. Special Operations Executive Undertakes SUBVERSION (But Undermines Law & Order?)
                         d. British Way of War Key to Later UK/US 2nd Front Disputes, especially "RANKIN" MopUp Concept
                 4. Tools: British Economy, Currency, Navy, Merchant Marine Weaker: NEED USA HELP
                          a. Churchill Hopes For Early US Entry/Psychological Impact: Will Blitz Bring USA In?
                          b. Yet Blitz Deaths Lower than Expected & Duplicitous FDR Constrained By Isolationist Sentiment
                          c. FDR Maybe Hoped Atlantic Aid & USSR Entry Wd Be Enough
                          d. WSC Haggles over Destroyers/Bases & Implies Lost Fleet; Will Have to More Directly Appease US in '41
                          e.  Bombing of French Navy at Mers-el-Kebir: Mistrusts Hitler & Impress US
         C. Decision to Fight On For Wrong Reasons Enables US Eventual Intervention
        
D. Early Focus on Air, Invasion & MidEast Ignores Ship Supply
         E. RAF Must Win: Royal Navy Would Be Vulnerable & Army Unequipped
II.  Battle of Britain, Summer 1940:  British Advantages, German Mistakes: Link to Imperial War Museum Site Overview
        A. Battle of Britain: Daylight Luftwaffe Effort vs. Fighter Command for Control of Channel Air
                  1. Though Baldwin Said Bomber will Always Get Through, Fighters Ready:
                  2. Cheaper, Bigger ## Impressed Commons: Qualitative British Air Superiority: Spitfire
                  3. Homefield Advantage: Flight Time & Returning Downed Planes/Pilots
                  4. Technology: Radar Warning: Concentrate & Reserve Air
                  5. Cost of Rapid German Rearmament: Tactical CoOperation Emphasized and No True Strategic Bomber Developed
                  6. Beaverbrook's MAP Ensures Enough Spitfires
                  7. Pilot Shortage & Airfield/Radar Damage Threatens Brits:  Link to Statistics
                  8. Assess Damage Poorly & Seek Revenge: German Shift from Counterforce to LONDON
        B. London Blitz 9/7 Saves RAF; SEELÖWE Postponed, Since No Control of Air
                  1. Targets: Resources & Morale: 43000 Dead 8/40-5/41
                  2. Knickebein Navigational System Jammed by Electronic War
        C. From Quick Decision to Long Campaign: Battle of Britain to Battle of the Atlantic

 

 

 

 

  THE EARLY BATTLE OF THE ATLANTIC, USA NEUTRALITY, & LEND-LEASE

I.  Keys to the Early "British" Battle of the Atlantic, 1939-1941: Link to Official Canadian Perspective
        A. Issues: Secure Lines/Communication for Imports & Power Projection
        B. German Gains & Successes: Norway/Channel/French Atlantic Bases
                1. Subs Directed By German Codebreakers: Knowledge of Convoy Moves
                2.
Wolfpacks Outsmart Underequipped Escorts For Awhile
                3. ASDIC Targets Submerged, But U-boats Often On Surface
                4. Results: Imports Fall from 55mt 1938 to 42m 1940 to 31m 1941 to 23m 1942 and continue falling
                5. But Does Germany Possess Enough U-boats? Dönitz wanted 300, had about 27
        C. Maritime Mistress of Blockade Now Herself Vulnerable: Britain's Reply?
                1. British Absorb/Requisition Fleets of Conquered Nations
                2. British Shipbuilding/Repairing Falters: Poor Productivity
        D. 4/41 Turning Pt: Weather Improves Seasonally, Import Program Reviewed/Cut, Lend/Lease, Barbarossa, Cryptography
  
                1. Some Historians Argue that Losses Look Bad, But Germany May've Missed Only Chance to Beat British
                        a.
Their conclusion: Thereafter, Only U-boat Hope is to Prevent Offensives
                        b. Slow-Developing German Attack Gave British Time to Respond/Innovate
                2. Br Escorts Coordination Better; Add RDF, Convoy TransAtlantic, Cut Import Fat, Mgmt/Ports/RR
                3. Arrogant German Certainty Enigma Can't Be Broken: Link to PBS NOVA Transcript 1999 & Companion Website
                        a. Theft of Actual U-110 Enigma helpful early to gain settings
                        b. 1st Computers Aid Calculation to Enable Evasion or Battle
                        c. New German Rotor Complicates Codebreaking, US Entry Botches Atlantic Convoys: Stage 2, 1942
         E. BRITS NEED US HELP: $$, Naval & Merchant Ships, Food, RM, Arms, Far East Aid
II.  What Can/Will USA Do in 1940-41 Amid Election CAMPAIGN?
        A. Industrial Strength Underused/Depression & Prefer Isolation/Neutrality: Will US Rearm Effectively?
                 1. Euro-US Friction: Trade/Tariffs, Debt/Johnson Act, Neutrality Acts, Immigration
                 2. Depression & Historical Revisionism about WW1 Origins/Results: Disillusioned/Pacific > Isolate/Am 1st
        B. Aid British Unsinkable A/C Carrier:  Redress & End European Balance of Power/Globalize It
                 1. Neutrality Acts of 1935-1937 Remain: Domestic Politics
                 2. Provide Weapons?: Sell "Surplus" Arms: "Hanging From a Lamppost?" to Destroyers-Bases Deal, Sept 1940
                 3. British Takeover Expensive French Arms Contracts:  $ Will Run Out in 1941
                 4. Lend/Lease December 1940-March 1941: Dispose of $$ sign
: Link to Roosevelt's Press Conference Rationale
                 5. Atlantic Charter/Newfoundland 8/41: Wilsonianism & FreeTrade
        C. Terms of Endearment: Not-So-Special Relationship Commercially...Strategically?
        D. Viscose/Consideration: Competitive CoOperation/No Empire Preference
        E. Unneutrality: Undeclared Naval War to Aid British Communications
                 1. April '41: Naval Patrols in West Atlantic Report German Positions to RN; 5/41 Role in Bismarck Hunt
                 2. July 1941: Garrison & Convoy to Iceland, Now  Part of Western Hemisphere
                 3. September 1941: U-boat Attacks Greer: Shoot-on-Sight & Extend Lend-Lease to Russian "Democracy"
                 4.  October 1941: U-boats Attack Kearny & Robin Moor: Casualties
        F. Americans Opposed to Entry Leak: Kent in Embassy;  Isolationist Generals  "Victory Program" 12/41
III. What is Vital? Hemisphere &/or Europe? Economic/Moral/Security Motives
       A.
Without Pearl Harbor,  When Would US-Nazi Have Fought?
       B. Evaluate Roosevelt's Handling: LBJ Uses As Model for Tonkin Gulf
IV. US Policy Toward Distracting Japanese Pacific Threat Evolves
       A. CHINA: Stimson Doctrine/Panay/Ludlow;  Fleet Deters Further Move? Or Hastens It?
       B. British Must Yield Initiative to US; 1941 Japanese Entry into S IndoChina Leads to Sanctions & War
       C. Any Account of Roosevelt's Actions 1940-41 Cannot Ignore Pacific

 

 

 

 

 

  HITLER'S MEDITERRANEAN OPTION & THE DECISION FOR BARBAROSSA

I. Hitler's Choice: All-out Mediterranean Attack on British Empire?
       A. Attack Gibraltar? Imperil British Connections to Middle East, Suez, Oil, India
                1. Indirect Strategy To Replace SEELÖWE & Maintain a One Front War
                2.
Kriegsmarine: Yes, Beat Britain!    Hitler: TransAtlantic War Vs USA: Review of Goda's Argument
                        a. Complementary or Contradictory to Barbarossa? Hitler Thought Complementary
                                 (1) July 1940 URGENT Focus USA to Pre-empt Action So Germany Can Turn East!
                                 (2) Hitler Would Eventually Use as a Springboard Westward Across Atlantic
                                 (3) September 1940 US-UK Destroyers/Bases Deal Aggravates G Worry about SW Flank
                        b. Ongoing Quest for Lebensraum Would Lead to Endless RaceWar with No Geographical or Time Limits
                        c. US: View of Tripartite Pact Implies Common Axis Program
        B. Western Mediterranean Option Missed: Spain's Franco Manipulates German Limits Better Than Mussolini
                1. Hitler Tries To Fool Customers Pétain & Franco About His Ambitions
                        a. Franco Wants Explicit Pledges About Spanish Possession & German Aid! BUT
                        b. Hitler Won't Promise Franco French Morocco, For He Wants It via Gibraltar
                        c. German Plan FELIX would Lead to a Permanent G Presence in Morocco & Canary Islands
                2. German Need for Afr/Atl Base Antagonizes Franco, & German Gibraltar Catastrophic: He Stays "Neutral"
                3. Hitler Remains Concerned about French NW Africa Defecting to Allies (TORCH Fulfills)
        C. Britain Remains in Egypt: Only Place to Fight On Land; Allied Access to Gulf Oil Preserved, Axis Denied: Vital?


II.  The Balkan/Mediterranean Theater, Winter 1940-41: Italian, British, & German Overextension, Victory & Defeat
        A. Mussolini in the Mediterranean, His Italian Lake: Why Fight: Glory & Power, Before War Ends
        B. British Initiative & Defeat: 11/40: Bold British Taranto Raid on Italians (Inspires Japan)
                 1. Desert War: O'Connor Disgraces Graziani, Winter '40-'41, Yet This 1st Brit Winner is Captured Soon Thereafter
                 2. Hitler Bolsters Italy in NAfr: Desert Fox Rommel Commands DAK, Yet Never Enough  Commitment to Med
                 3. Musso Idiocy: Attacks Greece in Winter '40 & Creates Balkan Flank  for Spring '41 Campaign
                 4. Hitler Worries about Bombing of Romanian Oil: Conquer Greece
        C. Yugoslavia Defies Nazi Path to Greece: Conquered, Divided, But Resists Ferociously: History Remains Relevant
        D. Hitler into Balkans 4/41 Creates Tough Poor British Choice to aid Greeks, who suffer FAMINE/INFLATION
                 1. Overextended British Fail in Greece, Crete (Loss of Air Overrides Command of Sea), & Libya
                 2. Long Supply Line: Mideast Emphasis Questionable
                 3. Did Balkan Battles Prevent Conquest of USSR in 1941? Probably Not
        E. German Conquest of Continental Europe Nearly Complete: War w/o Serious Drain to this Point


III. Hitler's Ideological Strategy: Extend Blitzkrieg to Russia
        A. Ideologically Inflexible after Pragmatic Flexibility: Destroy Bolshevism NOW! Get Lebensraum!
                 1. Also, Roosevelt's Aid to British Meant  Long War In West Unless Intimidate British into Peace
                 2. If Control All Euro, Unassailable by US in 1942 & a Japan Free of USSR Worry Could Bother USA
                 3. Stalin's Willing Supply of Raw Materials Insufficient
                 4.
All Depends On Beating USSR In One Campaign
        B. Delayed Final Decision 7-12/40: Stalin's Excessive Interest in E. Europe Disastrous
        C. Stalin SURPRISED! Ignores Hints/Warnings of Nazi Assault: Was He Preparing an Attack? No New Defense Line:
Molotov's Reaction

 

 

 

 

 

BARBAROSSA TOWARD STALINGRAD: THE RUSSIAN FRONT

I.  Barbarossa: Largest Battle Ever: Initial German Success: How/Why?
        A. 3.6m Germans Assault 2.9m Russians: 6/22/41: Wehrmacht Link
                 1. Link to Overview of Inadequately Studied Battles
                 2.
Huge USSR Losses Ensue (4m Killed/Wounded/Captured 6-10/41)
                 3. Kiev & Vyazma Encirclements 660K+ Each, Commanders Shot
        B.Wehrmacht Tactically Superior & Stalin's Leadership Terrible
                 1.
Wehrmacht: Superior Education/Technology/Unit Cohesion/Training/Initiative: Best Army
                 2. Red Army: Fear/Alienation/Illiteracy/Rigidity/Conformity
                 3. Stalin was Wrong: Overrated French in 1940 & Mistrusted Brits' ULTRA Warnings in 1941
                 4. Stalin: NO WITHDRAWALS in 1941, Since Forward-Deployed Red Army Impervious to Blitzkrieg
                         a. Order 270: Soldier Taken POW is a Traitor? Vlasov's Fate
                         b.
This Stupidity Usually Aided German Advance to 12/41, But Helped Avoid Total Collapse


II. Disparity Not Enough For Germans To Win Quickly ( & Maybe They Had To Do So!), Or At All
        A. HITLER Underestimated Sovt #'s & Tenacity...DID HE LOSE OR DID USSR WIN?
        B. A Limitless War: Time, Weather, Distance & Communications
                 1. Initial Delay: Balkan Campaign & Slush/Mud: From May 15 to June 22
                 2. Excessive Strategic Flexibility: Panzer Diversions North  & South
                         a. 7/29-9/6 Shifted Panzers From Centre (Moscow) to Assault on Kiev: Link to Ukrainian Heritage Website
                         b. Hitler Obsessed with Ukrainian Resources (Lessons of WW1 Haunt Axis Too)
                 3. Operation TYPHOON 10/41 Slowed By Autumn Rain, Poor Russian Lines/Communication Tough to Exploit
                 4. Winter Snow, -40 Fahrenheit Paralyzes Poorly Shod Troops; War Perhaps Already Lost
        C. Blitzkrieg Falters Before Moscow: From Battle of Annihilation Favoring Nazis to Battle of Attrition
                  1. Zhukov's December Counterattack Saves Moscow After Rushing In from Siberia
                         a. Uninformed, Confused Japan Stays Neutral: Diplomatic Discord & Memory of Nomonhan
                         b. Japan Needs Southern Resources & Signed Non-Aggression Pact, 4/41
                  2. Soviet Survival Saves Democracy & Communism


III.  The Wehrmacht Digs In: Is New Blitzkrieg Possible in 1942?
        A. Longer-Term Factors Contribute to Nazi Loss in '41 & Later
                 1. Nazi Exterminations/Savagery Hinders Economic/Political Exploitation: Mistreat Possible Native Allies
                         a. Some Become Partisans Attacking German Lines of Communication: Link to U.S. Army Study
                         b. Einsatzgruppen & Kommissarbefehl Murders
(Link to Order 1 and Order 2); Chance to Implement Final Solution
                         c. Stalin Ideological Oppressor; Hitler Racial Tyrant; Katyn Forest Massacres Discovered Too
                 2. Most USSR Tanks Obsolete, But T-34 Tougher; Crucial Shift of Industrial Base to Factories Behind Urals
        B. WINTER: Hitler Orders Hedgehog: Prevent Retreat Turning into Rout Just as Stalin Had Done in '41
                  1. Stalin's Winter Offensive Brings Only Terrible Mutual Casualties
                  2. Survival Shows Nazis Aren't Invincible! But Also Stalin Errors
        C. 1942 Nazis Retain Enough Strength To Attack: But WHERE?  SUMMER Target: Stalingrad & Caucasus
                  1. Oil & Grain Desired,  But Overextended Lines of Communications, Overambitious
                  2. Stalin Finally Allows Retreats, Trade Space For Time/Men in Caucasus, But Stand Firm at Stalingrad


IV.  The Impact of German Occupation of the Western Soviet Union:  Conquered 40% People, 60% Arms Factories, 63% Coal, 33% Rail, 38% Cattle, 71% Iron Ore, 42% Electricity Generation, 50% Grain & Meat
        A. Lend/Lease Vital: Trucks, Phone Wire, Food, Cloth, Steel, Aviation Fuel
        B. Chance for Mass Slaughter of Jews/Slavs Remains Available & Siege of Leningrad Continues  

 

 

 

  

 

 


 

 

 ALLIED HOPES FOR VICTORY:
 ECONOMICS, TECHNOLOGY, LEADERSHIP, DIPLOMACY, & A NOBLE CAUSE

I. Overwhelming Statistics 12/41 Mean Inevitable Win?  Levine: YES, of course!
        A. Or Do Pearl/Barbarossa Make Victory More Likely, But Not Inevitable?
        B. Germans Superior to Local Europeans But Not USA & USSR
        C. If US Industry Wins War in 1943-5, Why Hadn't Germans in 1940-2?
        D. '42 Axis Ahead: Win Before USA Fully Mobilizes?
        E. Time Lag from Production to Victory: Axis Opportunity

 

II. Economies At War: US/USSR Improvisation, Standardization, Scale
        A. German Relative Failure: British Outproduce Germans in  Major Categories '41-2
                  1. Quality/Quantity: Hundreds of Types w/o Standardization
                  2. Stagnates Thanks to Business/Nazi Rivalry & Chaotic Chain of Command: Dictatorship vs. Democracy
                  3. Army Too Responsive to Battlefield; Micromanages Custom Built Design
                  4. Arms Czar Albert Speer Forces Standard/Production, But Too Late As BOMBS FALL
                  5.
Lots of Allied Low/Medium-Tech Beats Less of Axis High-Tech
                         a. German Technology Fastidious But Mass Production Better
                         b. Luftwaffe Stuck With Original Models as Udet Insists: All MUST Dive-BOMB
                  6. German Arms/Tactics/Use of Technology Imitated & Surpassed by Allies' Rapid Learning Curve
        B. DiNardo: Equine Dependence Fatal: Fodder Availability; Reproduction/Maturity Lead Time; 
Unfamiliar Climate
                  1. Plunder New Sources '38-41: 600000 in 6/41as Basic Army Transport
                  2. Operations: Limits Range, Slows Infantry, Exposes Artillery to Air
                  3. Pz Divisions: Tanks 300 1940, 150 in  '41; 73 in '43:  Army 1/2 Modern Truck/Tank;  1/2 Horse/Cart/Foot/Rail
                         a. 600000 Vehicles 6/41; 75000 by 11/41    Tanks 6:1W 3:1E 1945 ratio in favor of Allies
                         b. 1945 Panzer Divisions Have Horses/Vets, Fighting Soviets Equipped by Lend/Lease with Quality Trucks
                         c. 1944 US-UK Fully Motorised Armies v German Horses
        C. Desperate USSR Revives: Standardize Few Models, Equipment, Procedures
                  1. From Improvised Evacs to Effective Central Planning & Regimented Scarcity
                  2.
Coercion/Fear Reign: Factories Battlefield Under Military Law
                  3. USSR Tanks Get Air/Land Radio Links & Diesel Engine Radii & Armor Increased
        D. USA: Big Corps Coopted by Profits: Creative Chaos, Averse to Central Planning: 
Rapid/Huge Armament Achieved
                  1. Richmond CA: Liberty Ship: Mass-Produced Merchant Ships 16:1 Japan's Ability
                  2. Annual New Model Cars Facilitate Adjustments to Tanks/Machine Guns/Planes, Willow Run Produces B-24
                  3
. Car-Obsessed Culture Breeds Mechanics: 8x Non-tank Vehicles in Comparison with Initially Equipped Panzer Divisions
        E. OIL: Japan Gets NEI, But Unready to Defend Access & Maintain Pilot Training
                  1. Germany Can't Conquer/Exploit Caucasus, so Synthetic Oil Production & Ploesti Key
                  2. Allied Access to Oil Maintained Despite Soviet Losses
                         a. US Pipelines Built & 100 Octane Fuel Supplied
                         b. British Focus: Suez & North Atlantic In Part To Defend Oil Lines
        F. Axis Technological Near Misses: Ballistic/Cruise Missiles, Atoms, Subs, Jet

III. Success of Efforts to Deny Resources to Enemy Also Crucial
        A. Compare US Submarine War vs Japan With Germans v British & USA
        B. Anglo-American Bombing of Germans Diminishes Increased Production

IV. Axis Fails to Lead & Coordinate: Mistakes Close Window of Opportunity: Link to Article Evaluating Failures of Axis Coalition on Eastern Front
        A. No Room for Ideological/Cultural Errors, such as Wasting Women/Ukrainians
        B. Ineffective Decision-Making Within & Between "Allies" (Geographical Distance Impedes)
                  1. Nazi-Sovt Pact Concluded While Russia/Japan Fight @ Nomonhan; Japan Lets US Ships Sail to Vladivostok
                  2. SE Europe: Germans Occupy Romania 9/40 to Target USSR
                         a. But This Threatens Mussolini's Sphere, So He Attacks Greece!


                         b. Drawn Into Balkans, May Have Delayed Barbarossa
                  3. Germany  Denied Japan Synthetic Oil Process Information  Until 1/45!
                  4. Hitler's WILL Overrules All!? Won't Delegate;  Early Wins Make Him Deemed Infallible! But 6&12/41 Mistakes
                  5. Stalin/Roosevelt/Churchill Rely More on Military Managers: Marshall, Brooke
                  6. Using Forces: 2-Front Wars & Strategic Priorities
                         a. Japan's Army/Navy Battles: Army Focus on China, Navy on West
                         b. Japan's Navy Neglects ASW--Contrast with British
                         c. German Stress on Holding Ground: Leads to Overextension & Exposes to Counterattacks Everywhere
                  7. Germans:  Better Tactical Leaders? But Battlefield Bribes

V. THE GOOD WAR: Faith, Patriotism, Liberalism Vital Despite or Perhaps Because of USSR
        A. Moral Conscription/Sacred
Hatred Limited: WW1 Memories
        B. Hate of Hitler Cements: Residual Sympathy for Germans re Versailles Treaty Gone
        C. Moral High Ground: Cohesive Morale Allied or Axis? Parker vs Overy
                  1.
German & Japanese Cohesiveness & Prestige? Versus UK Class & External War?
                  2. Germany: Churchless PostWar Cities & MassMurder of "Useless"
                  3. Western Morale: Defined by Blitz/Beveridge Report on Domestic Postwar: The New Jerusalem
                  4. USSR Atheism:  Defend Mother Russia/Orthodox Revival
                  5. Great Patriotic War: Submerge Collectivization Memory?
        D. Should Christians Openly Seek Defeat of Own Unjust Rulers? (Versus Barbarossa as Crusade)
        E. Vatican Ambiguity, Catholic vs Orthodox in Yugoslavia; God & Holocaust

VI. Grand Alliance A Winning Coalition: Solidified by Self Interest
        A. Can They Stay Together Until War Won?
        B. Stalin: Central Planning & Terror Extracted Sacrifice
        C. Roosevelt :Charismatic Transformed By Polio into Idealist & Powermonger
                  1. Juggler: Costly Improvisational Administrative Habits
                  2. Appalling Chaos Amid US Averse  to Centralization
                  3. Often Uses Plenipotentiaries as Eyes/Ears/Icebreakers
                  4.
Key Decisions Firm: Germany 1st, Allies, CCS, Cross-Channel
                  5. Marshall Crucial: Ascetic, Reserved Manager/Carnot
        D. Churchill: Manic Romantic Drunk? Warrior Lost Empire, Saved Western Civilization
                  1. Gallipoli Memories: Norway, TORCH, HUSKY, Anzio, Rhodes, OVERLORD
                  2. Amateur Strategist, Skeptical of Professionals:  Clear Administrative System: ACTION THIS DAY
                  3. CIGS Brooke Curbs Churchill's Erratic Pugnacious Whims Like Dakar, Greece, Crete, Med, Turks, Balkans
                  4. Relies on Air/Enigma/USA; Less Important as War Goes On
        E. Ongoing 3-Way Struggle:  COLD WAR SUBMERGED, YET KATYN/WARSAW/2nd Front
                  1.
Alternatives: Red Scares, Nazi Soviet Pact Had Destroyed Second Front in 1940
                  2. Myth of  "New USSR"? Abolish Comintern, Absorb Baltics
                  3. Rebuilt 2nd Front  '42-44: USSR Needs Aid/Hitler Glue/US Economic Aid
                  4. Litvinov, Pre-'39 FM Until N/S, Now Soviet Ambassador to USA
        F. "Proper Application of Overwhelming Force"? Germany 1st, Battle of Atlantic, Aid USSR
        G. Sustaining "Special Relationship" of Roosevelt/Churchill: Also KEY to 2nd Front
        H. From Foundations to Campaigns: Winning the War
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 THE BATTLE OF THE ATLANTIC, 1942-1943

I.  Multiple Mutually Reinforcing Major Campaigns Sea, West, Mediterranean, Air War, Eastern Front
II.  Battle of Atlantic Importance: Prerequisite for Victory for Bombing, D-Day, USSR, Pacific!
III. Goal: Avoid Battle & Measure Success by Amount of Cargo & Number of Ships Arrived, NOT BY # of U-boats sunk!
        A. Campaign: Obsession With Battles Then & in History Books Masks MANAGEMENT Trials: Railroads/Ports
        B. CONTEXT/Tactics: "Wimps Avoid Combat" So Find & Fight Them   (Bowling's View of Mahan)
                  1. Capital Ships Seek Big Fleet Battle for Command of  Sea:  "Commerce Destruction Indecisive & Secondary"
                  2. WW1: British Delay Convoy & Germans Delay Sub Focus: Jutland Key Battle But Nearly Meaningless
        C. WW2: Japan Stays Wedded to Mahan: Interdicted by USNavy  Subs '43-44
        D. German: Z-Plan Balanced Fleet, Not 300 U-Boats! Slow Start
        E. Chance to Beat British Gone in '40-'41?: Hope Now to Prevent Operations!
        F. Britain: Few Escort Vessels & Churchill Still Obsessed w/Hunter/Killer Approach: Adapt Slowly
        G. USN '42: Anglophobe Mahanians Ignore Evidence: Is this Dereliction of Duty?
IV.  1942-43 Struggles: Terrible Weather & Worst Sinkings of War
        A. US East Coast '42: Hunter/Killer  Patrols Fail as Paukenschlag Wolfpacks Enjoy 'Glückliche Zeiten' 2
                  1. Blackout & Convoy Inexplicably Delayed by Mistrust RN/RCNand USN/RN
                  2. USN Wanted Full Destroyer/Escort Complement
                  3. Link to Superb if Optimistic Online Narrative of Intelligence Cooperation
        B. Subs Shift to Mid-Atlantic in Summer '42: Loiter in AIR GAP: Where Best Use Bombers?
                  1. Germans Read British Codes, & 4th Rotor Denies Allied Access
                  2. Milch Cows/Radio Bursts Designed to Protect, Yet Merchant Ships Sunk Per U-B On Duty Fall
                  3. "Blind" Winn Tracks Partly Without Codes;  Efforts Mitigate Huge Losses:  Malta Saved/Rommel Choked
        C. Imperial Supply Lines Threatened in Mideast & India By Operations & British Import Needs
                  1. TORCH Saves & Costs Escort Vessels & Merchant Ships
                  2. Winter '42-43 Crisis:  British Less Fat to Cut/US Never Cuts
                  3. All '42-'44 Ops Rest on Battle of the Atlantic & Basic Supply Lines to USSR/British
        D. 1/43: Raeder Sacked, German Focus on Subs; Horton Demands VLR, H/K & Well-Equipped Escort Vessels
                  1. Winter '43: Better Coverage, Losses Continue--Fight On
                  2. Too Many to Evade: Must Fight Through: Hunter/Killer ONLY NOW POSSIBLE
V.  March-May 1943 Cumulative Victory Keys: Technology & Tactics
        A. US MERCHANT BUILDING Surmounts Losses & Demands--does it make Loss Rate Irrelevant?
        B. Maybe Not: Enough Trained, WILLING Crews? Links to Overview of US Crews/Ships & Tribute to Them
        C. Escorts' RDF & HF/DF (High Frequency Direction Finding) Enable Some Location without Codebreaking;
        D. ULTRA Recovered Too;  Better Weapons, Better Used: Hedgehog, Leigh Light on B-24: Link to Historiography of Intel Revelations
 
        E. VLR (Very Long Range Aircraft): Patrol, Searchlight, Radar, though RAF Reluctant to Give B-24
                  1. MYOPIA 1st Ploesti Raid Alone Lost Enough B-24s to Close AIR GAP
                  2.
Centimetric Shortwave Air-to-Surface RDF: Accuracy
                  3. Subs' Target Acquisition Required Surface Cruising: Can't!  Link to NOVA Site on Recently Found Sub
        F. National Joint Combined (Separated) Forces: British Win in Spring, US in South Atlantic in Summer
        G. Escort Carriers Enter Late, & with VLR prevent Re-Entry, BUT:  What If Germans Build True Submarines?
VI.  Results: 5/43:  Merchant Ships  Loss Rate 1/4 of 11/42 & 41 U-Boats Lost
        A. 1944  Merchant Ships Losses 3% of 1942: Implications for Offensives
        B. Resource Imbalance  Therefore  CAN Pay Off in '44 with PROPER APPLICATION!
VII. Smith: Logistics Diplomacy: Conflict Over USMerchant Shipbuilding: British Fall/US Rise
        A. Delayed Battle of Atlantic Win: COMPETITION Between: Pacific, BOLERO, British Imports, Mediterranean
                  1. British Logistically Dependent, Seek Strategic Control
                  2. Roosevelt's 11/42 Promise of  Merchant Ships Contradictory to TORCH!  2nd FRONT ISSUE!
        B. 1/43: SYMBOL:  Merchant Ships  "Stranglehold on All Offensive Ops"; Atlantic Battle 1st Charge on Resources...
 

 

 

 THE 2ND FRONT CONTROVERSY & ALLIED INITIATIVE IN THE MEDITERRANEAN

  I.  US-UK Exploits From Lend/Lease to OVERLORD: Closest Allies Ever & Flawed
        A. Churchill's Historiography Dominates: "Special Relationship" Real?
                  1. Axis Beaten & Then Democratized,  Atlanticism Postwar
                  2. Origins Between 6/40-12/41, As Neutral US Undergoes Slow Shift to Belligerency
        B. REAL & Unusual Co-Op in  Intelligence/Atoms Amid Divisions
        C. Victorian Imperialist Tory Appeases Liberal Democrat
                  1. Churchill & Roosevelt: Flawed Collaboration Yet Essential to WIN
                  2. CCS/CPRB/CSAB/CFB/CMAB/CRMB: Bureaucratic Catch-Up:  Combined Chiefs of Staff, Combined Production Resources Bd, Combined Shipping Adjustment, Combined Food,  Munitions Assignment, & Raw Materials Boards


II.  Reynolds: Issues Include Imperialism, Econ Rivalry, Postwar, Strategy
        A. Competitive Co-operation Amid US Rise & British Decline
                  1. Domestic Political & Bureaucratic Restraints
                  2.
Limits to Roosevelt/Churchill Friendship & USN Acquiescence in Allied Strategy
                  3. Roosevelt Eventually Woos Stalin at Churchill's Expense
        B. Imperialism: Save England's Asiatic Colonies/SEAsia Command
                  1. Both Prefer Informal Empire, US Push But Not Too Hard On India: "First Minister's" Threats
        C. Economic Rivals:  Merchant Ships, Commodities (Oil/Meat), Civil Air, Postwar
                  1. Yet British Allowed to Rescind Sterling Convertibility, '47
                  2. Postwar Security: Int'l Idealism or 4 Policemen?
        D. Yet Anglo-Am Cooperate Far Better than Axis: Key to Victory


III.  SECOND FRONT NOW: The Early Anglo-American Planning Debate
        A. Germany 1st Precedes Pearl Harbor: Rainbow 5/ABC-1/Plan Dog
        B. How Help Russia?: 2nd Front Round I, 1942: SLEDGEHAMMER in France?
                  1. MacArthur's Pacific 2nd Front Instead of Germany 1st
                  2. British & American Ways of War: Indirect/Direct
                         a. USA Way: Overpower Thru Massed Superiority??  & go Cross-channel
                         b. Equipment Shortages & Tactical Difficulties: Will British Ever Really Back Cross-Channel?
                         c. Air, Merchant Ships, Landing Craft Shortages & British Memories of Weakness
                         d. British Need US Food/ Merchant Ships /$/Supply; US Need British Base, Trained Troops
        C. Who Decides? CCS Integrated Mil Command Devised: '42 Joint Chiefs of Staff & Joint Staff Mission (for COS)
                  1. Brooke, Pound, Portal, Mountbatten; Marshall, King, Arnold:  Suspicions of Vehicle for Others' Influence
                  2. Brooke/King Fear Subordination; Marshall & Broker Dill Make Integrity Work Informally/Improvised
                  3. Roosevelt/Churchill  Impetuous; 1943 Conferences: CCS=COS/JCS,  JSM (except Dill) Insignificant
                  4. Combined & Joint Operations & Ike's Unified Commands
        D.
What is Strategy: Pacific/BOLERO/SICKLE/British Imports/Middle East Priority?
        E. What Does Europe 1st Mean? To Whom? When? For How Long?
                  1. ARCADIA, 12/41: Bomb, NAfr/Med...Europe   Pacific?
                  2. SLEDGEHAMMER?!? Br, 4/42 Say "Yes"; in  6/42 Say NO!  Will ROUNDUP '43 Be Possible?
                         a. Ike/Marshall: Focus on Western Europe to Prevent Dispersion/Effort
                         b. Br Concern: MacArthur & King: Accept SLEDGE v Pacific, 4/42 to Prevent Dispersion Outside West
                         c. Br Troops Wd Be Used: US: Sacrifice OK,  Br: Must Have Chance of Success: Focus in West, Not Fr
                  3. Roosevelt Promised Molotov a 2nd Front in Europe in 1942 & Faces an Election Year
                         a. Marshall Later Acknowledged: "In War, A Democracy Must DO SOMETHING Every Year"
                         b. US Position: Keep Sovts Alive to Kill Nazi? Must SUPPLY & MOUNT an OPERATION IN FRANCE!
                         c. Arctic Convoy Loss Rate 7% Highest of Any Route (PQ17 the worst)
                         d. Br VETO of SLEDGEHAMMER Brings Stalemate to FDR/WSC: TORCH: Bitter USArmy Hates Brit WIN
                         e. Churchill Won't Acknowledge TORCH Delays Cross/Channel until 1944
                         f. FDR Orders Marshall to Hide Records of JCS Discussion of Abandoning West for Pacific
                         g. Dieppe Shows Amphibious Operations Difficult
        F. Churchill: Mideast Focus v USA Benefactor; Obsession With RANKIN


 IV.  The Mediterranean Theater: Context for TORCH
       A. Is Middle Eastern Oil Vital? (Caribbean & US Alternative Sources): Or This Fight For India/Empire?
       B. Egyptian Front Swallows Escorts & Merchant Ships As TORCH Will Too
       C. Pendulum War in Desert, '41-42: British Distracted to Crete/Greece
       D. Tobruk: Rommel Disobeys: Going to Nile Before Malta: Missed Opportunity or Insubordinate?
       E. Should Have Assaulted MALTA 1st: Supply Interrupted N/S & Maintained E/W (Airborne Lost at Crete)
       F. British Intelligence/Supply Gradually Better in '42 Than '41
       G. US Supply Reinforces Egypt vs Rommel: Monty Holds at Alamein: LIGHTFOOT Pincer Wears Down DAK

 

 


V. Smith: TORCH: 2nd Front Outside Europe--Easier Opponent?
       A. Need Operations Mounted & Get a Win to Reassure Public & USSR;  Yet Theater Self-Perpetuates
       B. Premature Operation Narrowed Future Options: Ship/Supply Nightmare
                  1. Supply Not Integrated Into Strategic Talks; TORCH Politically Motivated, Logistically Untenable
                  2. BOLERO & British Imports Falsely Seen as Adversaries Battling for Port Capacity
                  3.
Supply Costs Rise & Escorts & Merchant Ships Diverted & Procured over Landing Craft
                  4. USN Revises Priority; Surface Ships for Pacific at Expense of Landing Craft: Shortage for Assault/Supply
                  5. Xmas Cut Br Shipments to Middle East to Boost Br Imports Amid Stock Fall; Context for  Indian Famine
       C. TORCH: Shoddy Planning/Design & Weak Exploitation
                  1. Strategically Bold US Turns Tactically Cautious & Strategically Cautious Brits Turn Tactically Bold
                  2. US Fears Gibraltar Line Cut Unless Atlantic Landfall; Expects France Happy & Hopes for No Resistance
                  3. British: Go East & Boldly Threaten Tunis: Unhappy Compromise
                  4. British Victory Pyrrhic: Depends on US Implementing  Hated Overall Strategy  

       D. Improvised "Success" Despite Resistance & Poor RR Lines
                  1. Vital "Blooding" @Kasserine Provides Important Lessons, But Slows US in Tunisian Slog
                  2. Belated German Reinforcements TRapped & Axis Med Supply Lines Cut, But Also Slows Allies
                  3. Germans & Allies Diverted: No Cross-Channel into France in 1943
                  4. Several Potent Panzer Divisions in Tunisia Were Therefore Unavailable At Kursk
                  5. Lost Air Transport Unavailable Subsequently Too
       E. "Unconditional Surrender" & SOVIET ANGER Because this is No Real 2nd Front
       F. Darlan Deal Defeat: Separate Peace?: Reassure USSR & WIN a Complete Victory: No Dolchstosslegende
       G. Where Go From Here? How Far Into the Mediterranean?:  Incontrovertible Logic of Exploitation/Perpetuation

 

 

 

 


VI.  Brooke Genius? ALWAYS Argued Mediterranean Enabled OVERLORD? He Won War?  Evaluating Historiography
       A. Foresaw Iron Curtain? Thwart Reds Through Ljubljana? Or Trying to Help USSR to Keep Them in War?
       B. British Reluctance to Go Cross-Channel Was Not Cold War Foresight, But WW1/Dunkirk Despair
       C. Spring 42:  Skeptical of TORCH: He Saw it Would Postpone Cross/Channel, Not Enable It
       D. Winter 42: Being Slowed Down in Tunisia Was Bad (vs Churchill, who saw it as a useful trap of Nazis)
       E. Expected German Withdrawal in Italy & EASY victory which wd NOT have worn down Nazis to aid OVERLORD
       F. Fall 43: Saw Further Operations in Italy as Alternative to Cross-Channel Not Prerequisite
       G. Strategically Opportunistic Brits v Rigid Americans; Logistically Rigid Americans v Opportunistic Americans
       H. Real Accomplishment Was Foil:  Stolid Brooke Restrains Crazy Churchill, Exploits Brilliant Churchill

 

 

 

 

 

 


 VII. What Next: Mediterranean Strategy Argued From Casablanca to Quebec
       A. British Commitment to OVERLORD: 5/43 Vague; 8/43 Yes & Reservations; 11/43 Check with USSR
       B. MULTIPLE BOTTLENECKS PREVENT 1943 ROUNDUP CROSS-CHANNEL
                  1. Shortages of Ships, Trained USA Divs, Supply Troops, Vehicles, Supplies
                  2. Roosevelt Accepts More Mediterranean Operations Over Cross-Channel Attack: Coalition Unity Key
                           a. 1/43 at Casablanca (SYMBOL):  Tunisia & BOLERO Ongoing;  Bomb (CBO) & Anti-Sub in Atlantic
                           b. Naval & Air Arguments Cinch Sicily/HUSKY: Marshall, Alone, Loses
                           c. British Win over Divided USA @ SYMBOL: Marshall/King Learn to Cooperate
                           d. How Far Into Italy in 1943? How Restrain Pacific?   BOTH BOLERO & HUSKY?? YES! MAYBE? NO!!
                  3. Roosevelt's Merchant Shipping Pledge, 11/42 for 27mt British Imports: Unclear, Army Untold
                  4. Somervell Greedily Seeks BOLERO over British Imports: False View of Merchant Shipping Capacity
                  5. British Insist that Roosevelt's 11/42 Pledge Be Met: A Bitter Harvest
       C. TRIDENT 5/43: OVERLORD "Fixed" & No More Troops into Mediterranean: Brooke Curses US Inflexibility
       D. QUADRANT 8/43: Sicily Shows Italy Vulnerable: Go Onward
       E. FIXED DATE FOR OVERLORD? Ljubljana Gap: Underbelly into Austria?

 


VIII. Mediterranean Operations in Sicily & Italy Evaluated: REAL Second Front Delayed?, '43
       A. Expensive Diversion, Essential Prerequisite, or Missed Chance?
       B. Germans Always Escape to Fight Again: Failure in Pursuit
       C. HUSKY 7/43: Sicily, Not Corsica/Sardinia: Keep Momentum & Germans Busy/Off-Balance
                  1. Goals: Turk In, AirBase v Ploesti, Beat Italy, Balkans Aflame, Clear Med, Divert Germans from E/W
                  2. Slogging through Apennines Limits Rather than Prevents German Reinforcements Elsewhere
                  3. Amid Planning Chaos, Monty Insists on Concentration on Commanders' Role
                  4. Alex/Monty, Remembering US Incompetence at Kasserine, Anger US By Reserving Road for 8th Army
                  5. Germans Escape as Patton Goes West
                  6. Mussolini Forced Out: Link to Photos of his Fate: 1,2,3 WARNING: THESE ARE GRAPHIC!
       D. ITALY 9/43: Surrender Bungled: Kesselring Will Defend South
                  1. AVALANCHE? No, Tremor: Complacent Salerno Landings Rebuffed, Nearly Drowned: Decisively Indecisive
                  2. Battles of Attrition: Weather/Terrain/Tenacious Nazi Defense: Flexible Cmdrs Ignore Hitler Sometimes
                  3. Prudent Tactics Waste Potentially Daring Strategies & Inexperienced US Cmdrs Mishandle Larger Formations
                  4. US Resists British Diversion of  Landing Craft to Eastern Mediterranean/Rhodes
                  5. Cassino 1-6/44: Topography, Plans Poor, Insufficient Troops in Attack
                  6. US Ready to Retaliate for Chemical Warfare, as Exposed by Bari Raid 12/43
         E. SHINGLE 1/44 at Anzio: Lucas/Clark: Which is Main Thrust?: Link to Excellent Online US Army Official Overview
                  1. EUREKA Decides USSR Help v Japan, so BUCCANEER Canceled, and Landing Craft Diverted to SHINGLE
                  2. Stranded Whale Instead of A Wildcat: LST Kept to Supply
                  3. Cassino: Air Attack & Final Victory Wasted by Clark's Quest for Rome (Polish View)
                  4. DIADEM Crowns None: US 5th Cuts Off Br/Allied 8th Army & German Xth Army Escapes;
                  5. D-Day Overshadows Rome 6/4/44
         F. ANVIL/DRAGOON 8/44: British Oppose, US Insists on Shift to Riviera
                  1. British Not Interested in Italy to Beat Reds to Vienna! Seek British Glory in Own Theater & Aid USSR
                  2. US Insists on LOGISTICAL SUPPORT & French Role
                  3. Rest Anticlimax amid Wins Elsewhere: Link to US Army Narrative of Concluding Operations

 

 

IX.  Evaluate: Costly Diversion & Needed Experience & Missed Chances
        A. German Diversion Partly Achieved, Yet Distracts Both Sides
        B. Intent: Could Flank Attack Become Main Axis? Churchill Sincere?
        C. Shipping Gain Unclear & Allied Improvisation Weak
        D. Poor Command & Tactics Mar Modest Successes w/Limited Tools
        E. Crucial Development of Expertise Validates Theater; See D-Day in  NW Europe
        F. Doing Nothing Unacceptable: Act, & Once Theater Opened, Keep Fighting

 

 

 

  STRATEGIC BOMBING

I.  Context: Only USA & UK, Most Democratic, Stress Strategic Bombing
        A. USSR & Nazi Focus on FrontLine Air/Army Tactical Support Dive Bomber
        B. US/UK Seek A Quick WarWinnerLowCost in $/Men & Exaggerated Fear & Hope
        C. Why: Revenge for Conquest, Retaliation for Bombing, Win War
        D. Can/Should We?    NChamberlain: No, Avoid Reprisal   Churchill: Yes, It's All We Can Do!
        E. RN Can Blockade, Army Only Good for Evacuations: We Must ACT! But Little Accomplished '40-2
        F. Substitute for Delayed 2nd Front? Hit Germans, Appease USSR
                  1. Army's 3 Ejections: Norway  4/40, France 6/40, Greece 4/41: Find An Alternative!
                  2. 8/42: Churchill-Stalin Meet: Since No SLEDGEHAMMER, "Pay Our Way" But Is It Right???


II.  Overcoming Early Failures & Obstacles in European Theater
        A. Allies Benefit from Unthreatened Space to Train & Build
        B. Anti-Clausewitz: Focus on Enemy State/Econ/People, Not Army
        C. Precision Bombing: Economic/Military Targets Like Oil/Electric/Chemicals/Arms/Transport
        D. Yet Only 1/5 Planes Bomb Within 75 Sq Miles in 1941; So Shift to Area Bombing vs. Civilians
        E. Limited By: Weather, Nights, Navigation (Need Radar/BombSights)
                  1. US-UK Conflict: Night v Day B-17 Flying Fortress, Prefer Area Vs. Precision (Especially in Europe)
                         a.  Key US (&USSR) Pol Support: USAAF Aids Germany 1st v Pacific 1st
                  2. Distracting Missions (Properly So?) Battle of Atlantic/Subpens & Interdiction in Normandy
                  3.
Focus: Developing Critical Mass, Technology & Tenacity
                  4. Technology: Gee/Pathfinder/Oboe/H2S/Window (Hamburg): Ebb & Flow
                  5. High Casualties: 5% & Up: British Raid Nuremberg 3/44 (11%), US: Schweinfurt Ball-Bearings 8-11/43 (20%)
        F. Clausewitzian Refocus on Luftwaffe: Defeat Fighters in the Air & On Ground  (2-3/44)
                  1. P-51 Mustang Disposable Fuel Tank: Speed/Maneuverability
                  2. BIG WEEK '44: Plane & Fuel Production on Ground ( Context for D-Day Success)
                  3. GAF Fighter Lost 12% in 1/44; 18% (2/44) 21% (3/44) 20 (4/44) 25% (5/44): Air Superiority
       G. Spaatz Targets Synthetic Oil vs Harris' Focus on German Towns vs Ike's Insistence on "Transportation Plan"
                  1. Win It Alone v Interdict Enemy Resupply & Support Troops on D-Day
                  2.
Invasions Still Necessary: The Limits of Air Power


III.  Japan: Spring 1945: US Bases/B-29 Area Vs Weak Air Defense
        A. Shift From High-Level to Low-Level Incendiaries 4-8/45: Wood Cities Aflame
        B. Japanese Production Cut &  Sub Action v Merchant Ships Also Interdicts Supplies
        C. USN Victory at Midway...Bombing Hiroshima & Nagasaki Avoids Invasion
        D. Area or Atomic Moral? OK to Disorganize/Dislocate/Terrify?


IV.  Assessments Vary: Liability, Waste, Atrocity or Decisive, Leading to Win?  Views of Heroes: HARRIS?
        A. Link to Dambusters Raid: Ethical?,  Link to Discussion of Morality of Area Bombing ,  Link to Defense of Military Morality & Link to Official Contemporary US Strategic Bombing Survey
        B. Ends War in Pacific After Early Navy/Marine/Army Wins
        C. Collateral Damage Hurts Morale in Mussolini's Italy, Impact on Germans Later & Indirect
        D. Limited Early Impact on German Output 3x 1941-44,  Didn't Prevent Speer's Expansion, But Put Lid On It
                 1. Labor Absent/Scared/Inconvenienced, Hit German V-1 & V-2 Staging Area, Transport/RR
                 2.
Occupied Areas Encouraged, Resistance Before Invasion; Germany Starved of Supply & Transport by 1945
                 3. More German Men Deployed on A/A Defense in West Than Armies Fighting in Italy;
                 4. 88mm Anti-Tank Shifted to Anti-Air; Aircraft Production Shift Bomber to Fighter ( <Trained Pilots/Fuel>)
        E. Cut Dead? Uses Scientific/Economic Capital, Not Human; 50k Br/50k US Airmen Die, 750k+ G Civs (Hamburg: 44k)
        F. Drains GAF Power in USSR/Med/West:  Aids Land Pincers

   

 

 

THE RUSSIAN FRONT: STALINGRAD TO KURSK

I.  Hitler's Blunder (?): Strategic Decision to Turn SE in 1942
       A. Moscow Ignored to Turn to Stalingrad: So Is Hitler Really a Genius?
       B. Southern Industry, Oil, Grain, & PRESTIGE of City Name: Link to Article on Hitler's Failure to Bomb Soviet Oilfields Effectively
 
       C. More German Victories, Yet Soviet Withdrawals Prevent Rout
                  1. 1942 2nd Front Controversies Comprehensible In Context of Desperation
                  2.
Stalin Allows ONLY Withdrawal of War to Avoid More POWs
                  3. NO MORE: No Unit Retreats, No Soldier Surrenders
                         a. Order 270 8/41: POWs Are Traitors (GULAGs Postwar) & Order 227 7/42: Yield Territory = Treason
                         b. Are These Orders A Dangerous Admission Order is Breaking Down?
                  4. Or Evidence Of A Belief that Firmness Would Force People to Choose Between Terrors
        D. Germans Divide Forces between Caucasus & Stalingrad to Protect Flank


II.  Russian Survival Prevents Endless War: How Accomplished After Initially Poorly Equipped/Trained/Mismanaged?
        A. Decimated System Produces Leadership (Zhukov & Chuikov)  & Qualitative Gains in Equipment/Tactics
        B. Close-In & Night Combat, Intelligence, Artillery Improved; Patriotism & Hate, Orthodox Revival Spur Morale


III. USSR Wins @Stalingrad: Hold With Minimum Reinforcement & Encircle: Counteroffensive v Overextension, 11/42
        A. Germans Lose Qualitative Mobile Edge in Urban Warfare as Long Supply Lines/Weather Impair Maintenance
        B. German Response to URANUS Counteroffensive: Airlift & Overland Attack Fails ( 1/2 Air Transport Lost)
                 1. Paulus Surrenders 1/43 Amid Huge Losses: Could Have Broken Out
                 2. Impact on Romanian & Italian Allies; German Factory Productivity Rises But Total War Too Late
        C. Stalingrad: Essential Foundation for Victory, Not Really Yet Decisive
        D. German CounterPunch in 2-3/43 Pushes USSR Back Temporarily


IV.  Kursk/CITADEL, 7/43: Decisive Soviet Victory: Modest German Offensive Becomes Hinge of War in East
        A. German Attack Delayed By  Wait for Tank Reinforcement
        B. Stalin Prefers Preemptive Attack, But Listens to Zhukov--Key Shift: Delegation to Professionals
                  1.  Stalin (Somewhat) Willing Slowly to Learn, Hitler Doesn't Think He Needs To
                  2. Zhukov: Await Attack/Absorb in Defensive Barriers & Then React
                  3. Better T-34: Modified Hatch & Added Radio & Flank Assaults on Superior German Tanks
                  4. USSR Thereafter Has Qualitative/Quantitative Tank Edge
       C. Not Just German Mistakes, But Also Soviet Improvement
       D. Cold War Impedes Acknowledgment & Merely Credits Clumsy Bludgeon
       E. Mussolini's Arrest: Troops Redeployed to Italy to Fight Against Anglo-Americans


V. Soviet 1944 Offensives: Frontal Assaults Still Needed
       A. Not Just German Mistakes, But Also Soviet Improvement
       B. Deportations of Suspected German Sympathizers Continue
       C. Warsaw Massacre 1944: Exception to Stalin's Offensive PUSH (Polish View)
       D. SU Lost 2/3 of  21m Horse; Rely on US L/L Trucks to Keep Moving Despite Thaws
       E. Loss of Air Superiority Key, Planes Diverted to Mediterranean/West
       F. Soviet Advances Toward SE Europe Seek Political Control & Buffer States
       G. Evaluating Stalin: Determination & Inspiration Yet Savagery: Link to More Positive Assessment of Stalin

 

 

 

  OVERLORD TO BERLIN: ASSAULTING FORTRESS EUROPE FROM WEST & EAST

 

 

  I. Background: DECISION, Defenders, Deception, InterDiction, DETROIT
        A. US/USSR Demand & GET OVERLORD: British Dominance Fades From TRIDENT to EUREKA (May-November 43)
                  1. Earlier or Elsewhere Possible? Cold War Ramifications
                  2.
1943?  BA UnWon, <Materiel/Manpower>, Soviets Further East, NAfrica Slows West & Weakens Germans
                  3. Mediterranean Theater Gains: Combat Experience, Air Bases, Keeping Germany Busy & Maintain Solidarity
                  4. Sovt Amphibious Ops Were Chaos: Most Prepped in 1 Day Across Rivers, But Accuse W of BAD FAITH!
                  5. Continue Mediterranean/Balkans in '44 Instead of Cross-Channel?
                         a. Med Logistic Drain & Awful Terrain: Not Soft Underbelly: German Could Have Redeployed There
                         b. Distraction, Not War-Winner: Inadequate Air Support There
                         c. US/British in Vienna & Prague?, USSR in Paris/Ruhr! A-Bombs in Euro Theater End War If Not Before?
                  6. But Why Didn't Stalin Invite West into Balkans & Take WEurope: WHOSE ERROR?
        B. Why Were Germans Still Fighting?: Hope to Split Enemy, Kill Jews, Win in West & Transfer to East: Article about German Strategy
                  1. Belief in Secret Weapons: Jets, Better Subs, V-Weapons
                  2. Can Nazis Repel Invasion/Concentrate Forces?Static @Beaches or Mobile Counterattack v Beachhead
                         a. Atlantic Wall Resources Wasteful? Osttruppen: Croat, Hungarian, Romanian, Pole, Lithuanian, Estonian, Finn, Latvian, Russian, Central Asian, Ukrainian, Indians, Koreans, etc.
                         b. Allied Command of Air Vital to Prevent Counterattack
                         c. Command Confusion: Rommel/Rundstedt/Geyr over Panzers
                         d. Access to Weather Forecasts Key/Atlantic WIN Enables Denial
                         e. Germans Waste Late V-1 on London, Not Beaches
                         f. Deception & Interdiction vs Concentration of Forces
        C. Deception = FORTITUDE North in Norway & SOUTH with FUSAG against Calais (Link to Video)
                  1. Can We Ever Understand How Vital ULTRA Was?
                         a. Added to Brit Confidence Regarding Nazi Strength (See McClellan vs. Lee '62)!
                         b. XX (Double-Cross) "Twenty" System Fed False Info/ULTRA Confirms Bait Taken
                         c. FUSAG Made More Credible By Early Summer Invasion, Travel & Traffic Restrictions On True Info Too
                  2. BA WIN/Deception Allowed Amphibious Buildup to Triumph over German Railway Advantage
        D. Soviet Resistance In East Is Necessary Precursor!
        E. Interdiction by Bombers & Resistance/SOE/OSS & T-Plan Argument
        F. Air (12000-300) & Naval Superiority; Army Outnumbered at 5v34

 

 

 


II. D-Day: Gliders, Paras, Pipers, Gadgets, Amphibians at SWORD/JUNO/GOLD
        A. Amphibious Failures: Mongols, Armada, Gallipoli, & Recent Amphibious Successes vs UNfortified Coasts!
        C. Weather Uncertain: Ike Gambles Wisely; Gale 2 Weeks Later!
        D. Leigh-Mallory Too Skeptical on Airborne: Ike Gives Go-Ahead
                  1. British Clear Beaches & Link With Airborne: Flank Safe
                  2. US Airborne Contributes Chaos, Not Objectives Reached
        E. OMAHA Near Defeat: B-17/24 Bombardment Fails, UTAH B-26 Works
                  1. Air/Sea Bombs Missed Target & 352 Div Moved There
                  2. "Firing Jeeps": Naval Artillery/Infantry Leaders Vital (D-Day Audio Link?)
                  3. "2 Kinds On This Beach: The Dead & Those About to Die": Description of Action at Omaha
       F. Reinforce & Supply: MULBERRY Hit By Storm, Air Interdiction vs. Enemy Rail Damaged Allied Advances
       G. June 6, 1944:  175000 Men/50000 Vehicles; 326000 by 6/11, 1m in Month  

 

 

 

 

III.  Stalemate Beyond Beachhead: Mid-June to Mid-July 1944
       A. FUSAG Delays Nazis @Calais, Yet Progress to Caen Slow Amid Bocage
                  1.  Monty's Revisionist View of Caen: D-Day Goal or Feint?
                  2.  Excess Focus on Getting Ashore Costly, Bocage Tactics Not Considered
                  3. Troops Who Had "Done Their Bit" Rested Rather Than Push
       B. Behind Schedule, Allies Ship Fewer SOS & More Combat Troops
       C. British @Caen: GOODWOOD Distracts Germans, US CarpetBombers Spark COBRA Breakout
       D. US Gadget: Rhinoceros Breaks Through Hedgerows in Bocage
       E. German Lack Of Initiative & Failure to Withdraw Aggravates Defeat

 

 


IV.  Breakout Choices: Allied Supply Neglect & Nazi Counterattack
       A. Future Supply Crisis: Failed to Focus on Breton Ports/Antwerp
       B. US Advance on le Mans Shifts to Argentan: Close Falaise Gap?
       C. Gap Not Fully Closed: Avoid Friendly Fire & Secure Seine Line
       D. Commit Resources to Pursuit to Seine/Paris/Beyond to German Border
       E. With RR Out/Ports Denied, Red Ball Express Inadequate, So War Goes On Past Xmas
       F. Single Thrust Vs Broad Front: Managing Monty (Original Overall Ground Forces Commander)'s Genius
                  1. ##'s & Allied Solidarity Damage Monty's Ongoing Quest for Overall Command
                  2. MARKET-GARDEN: A Bridge Too Far @ Arnhem: Outflank Westwall in North & Cross Rhine
                  3. Panzer Divisions Refitting Repel British 1stAB; USAB Gains Held
                  4. German Retribution for Dutch RR Strike: Hunger Winter
        G. Shifts Men/Supply from Scheldt Clearing: Delay, 1st Supply Convoy Arrives in Antwerp 11/28/44 Not Sept 44
                  1. Monty Fails: Antwerp Useless W/o Egress, Supply Crisis Ensues
                  2. DRAGOON Enables Supply of Southern Armies: Ike Was Right!
                  3. Landing Craft Shortages Postponed ANVIL/DRAGOON to August
                  4. Momentum Slowed: Winter on the Rhine Instead of Home By Xmas


V.  USSR Summer '44 Offensive through Bucharest/Budapest, Nears Warsaw

 

VI.  Endgame: Hitler's Hopes: V-Weapons, Jets, Schnorkels All Too Late
        A. Keeps Power Despite 7/20/44 Plot: Bolstered Perhaps By Bombing, Morgenthau Plan, Unconditional Surrender
        B. V-1&2 Cause Casualties, But Too Late: Launching Areas Overrun
        C. Last Gasp: Ardennes Offensive Leads to Battle of the Bulge 12/44: Hitler Tries to Split Allies, Capture Antwerp
                  1.  DeGaulle Insists Ike Can't Withdraw From Strasbourg to Shorten Allied Line
                  2. US Mobility, Air, Flexible Command, Tenacity Key
        D. Monty Again Demands Single Thrust & Monopoly of Credit, But Never Could Move Fast Enough to Justify It
        E. Allied Envelopment of Ruhr Utilizes Remagen Bridge & Into Germany
                  1. Ike Ignores Berlin: Destroy Enemy & Advance On Dresden
                  2. British Conscious of Weakness, Had Pushed Zonal Deals @EUREKA
                  3. Ike/US: Why Spend Lives For Berlin Only to Hand Over to USSR
                  4. Monty Seals Off Denmark from Soviets
                  5. Stalin Accelerates Renewal of Winter Offensive for Berlin
        F. Complete Collapse of Germany: A New War Begins


VII. Significance: Free Men HAD to Help Beat Hitler
        A. Opposite Dangers: USSR Quits or Wins Alone & Takes Credit, D-Day Foundation of US Postwar Role
        B. Unconditional Surrender Impossible Without Invasion
        C. Ike: Transportation Plan/Normandy/Airborne Use/June 6/Pursuit/BroadFront: Correct; M-G: Unwise

 

  

 

 

  WHY DID THE ALLIES WIN? COSTS & CONSEQUENCES?

I.  Costs & Consequences of the War: Absolute & Relative Dead/Wounded/Displaced: See Statistics
        A. Democratic Cooperation w/Dictatorship Breaks Down:  Cold War
        B. War Acceptable Again, & "Necessary"...But Limited
        C. Technological Acceleration: Strategic Bombing & the A-Bomb
        D. Medicine: More Die From Wounds Post-Battle Than Sick/Ill


II. The FINAL SOLUTION Evolves: Toward Nuremberg & Palestine
        A. Anti-Semitism: Religious, Political, Cultural, Social, Economic, Racial
        B. Expel/Emigrate to Ghettoize to Murder/Einsatzgruppen to Wholesale Organized Extermination
                  1. Slave/Forced Labor @ Auschwitz: Exploit as You Kill
                  2. 11% of Jewish Children in Euro '39 Survive: 1.2m Die; 13m Abandoned DP Children of All Races in Euro '45
                  3. 10% of Hitler Youth Fighting for Berlin Survived
                  4. Jewish Adult Culture & History Obliterated in Much of Europe
        C. Death Totals/Responses Vary Outside Germany: Any Righteous?
                  1. Assimilated German Jews Die, Unabsorbed Elsewhere Die
                  2. Who Killed? Who Helped? Who Knew? Who Denied Entrance?
                  3. Legacy of Atrocity Tales WW1: Believable?
        D. What Does Holocaust Say About God? About Mankind?


III.  Keys to Allied Victory in WW2: Inevitable?! Nazis Can't Win Because They Fight on Multiple Fronts?
        A. Totalitarians DO Rule in Eastern Europe Postwar; US Fights on 6 Fronts
        B. Limits to Hitler's 1940 Victories & Barbarossa/Pearl Defeats
        C. Allies WIN Key Victories: Atlantic, 2nd Front, Med,  Bombing , East , D-Day
        D. Disproportionate Allied Economic/Technological Superiority
                  1. US & USSR Differ, But Better Internal Organization
                  2. Germans' Opportunity Missed Though Mobilization Continues: Would Wonder Weapons Have Turned Tide?
                  3. Allied Marginal Better Handling of Logistics
        E. Disproportionate Allied Success in Resource Interdiction
                  1. Strategic Bombing in Europe, U-boat Defeat, Allied Access to OIL
        F. Allies Adapt/Tactical Learning Curve: Overcome Mistakes If Allies Stay Together: Coherence & Willpower


IV.  Limits to Allied Victory in WW2: Decolonization & Cold War
        A. Fall of France: Postwar Efforts to Restore Empire
        B. British Win & Fall: Should Britain Have Quit in '40?
        C. War Termination & Unconditional Surrender: Germany & Japan
                  1. Reassure USSR post-Darlan: Military Means to Achieve Political Objectives
                  2. Can/Should Germans Be Kept Down? How Ensure Never Again?
                  3. Costs of Total Victory: Lengthened War? Power Vacuum
                  4. The ImBalance of Power: The Future of Poland & Germany
        D. USSR Penetration into Central Europe: 1815 v 1945
        E. US Rise, US Role & the Cold War: Poland & Germany
                  1. Anglo-American Relations: Palestine, Greece, Lend-Lease, Loan...USSR!
                  2. Global Free Trade & Freedom v Trade Limits/ Catch-Up; Spheres of Influence, Bipolarity & Ideology
                  3. Soviet Intentions Beyond Defensive Sphere....CONTAINMENT
                  4. Cold War: Marshall Plan & NATO, Not War Debts & Isolationism